KURZWEIL PC4-7 (01) PDF MANUAL


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Rev. F Part Number 910587-006

CAUTION RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK DO NOT OPEN CAUTION: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT REMOVE THE COVER. NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED SERVICE PERSONNEL. The lightning flash with the arrowhead symbol, within an equilateral triangle is intended to alert the user to the presence of uninsulated "dangerous voltage" within the product's enclosure that may be of sufficient magnitude to constitute a risk of electric shock to persons. The exclamation point within an equilateral triangle is intended to alert the user to the presence of important operating and maintenance (servicing) instructions in the literature accompanying the product.

IMPORTANT SAFETY & INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS INSTRUCTIONS PERTAINING TO THE RISK OF FIRE ELECTRIC SHOCK , OR INJURY TO PERSONS

WARNING: When using electric products, basic precautions should always be followed, including the following: 1. Read all the Safety and Installation Instructions and Explanation of Graphic Symbols before using the product. 2. This product must be grounded. If it should malfunction or break down, grounding provides a path of least resistance for electric current to reduce the risk of electric shock. This product is equipped with a power supply cord having an equipment grounding conductor and a grounding plug. The plug must be plugged into an appropriate outlet which is properly installed and grounded in accordance with all local codes and ordinances. DANGER: Improper connection of the equipment-grounding conductor can result in a risk of electric shock. Do not modify the plug provided with the product – if it will not fit the outlet, have a proper outlet installed by a qualified electrician. Do not use an adaptor which defeats the function of the equipment-grounding conductor. If you are in doubt as to whether the product is properly grounded, check with a qualified serviceman or electrician. 3. Do not use this product near water – for example, near a bathtub, washbowl, kitchen sink, in a wet basement, or near a swimming pool, or the like. 4. This product should only be used with a stand or cart that is recommended by the manufacturer. 5. This product, either alone or in combination with an amplifier and speakers or headphones, may be capable of producing sound levels that could cause permanent hearing loss. Do not operate for a long period of time at a high volume level or a level that is uncomfortable. If you experience any hearing loss or ringing in the ears, you should consult an audiologist. 6. This product should be located so that its location or position does not interfere with its proper ventilation. 7. The product should be located away from heat sources such as radiators, heat registers, or other products that produce heat. 8. The product should be connected to a power supply only of the type described in the operating instructions or as marked on the product. 9. This product may be equipped with a polarized line plug (one blade wider than the other). This is a safety feature. If you are unable to insert the plug into the outlet, contact an electrician to replace your obsolete outlet. Do not defeat the safety purpose of the plug. 10. The power supply cord of the product should be unplugged from the outlet when left unused for a long period of time. When unplugging the power supply cord, do not pull on the cord, but grasp it by the plug. 11. Care should be taken so that objects do not fall and liquids are not spilled into the enclosure through openings. 12. The product should be serviced by qualified service personnel when: A. The power supply cord or the plug has been damaged; B. Objects have fallen, or liquid has been spilled into the product; C. The product has been exposed to rain; D. The product does not appear to be operating normally or exhibits a marked change in performance; E. The product has been dropped, or the enclosure damaged. 13. Do not attempt to service the product beyond that described in the user maintenance instructions. All other servicing should be referred to qualified service personnel. 14. WARNING: Do not place objects on the product’s power supply cord, or place the product in a position where anyone could trip over, walk on, or roll anything over cords of any type. Do not allow the product to rest on or be installed over cords of any type. Improper installations of this type create the possibility of a fire hazard and/or personal injury.

RADIO AND TELEVISION INTERFERENCE

WARNING: Changes or modifications to the instrument not expressly approved by HDC-Young Chang could void your authority to operate the instrument. IMPORTANT: When connecting this product to accessories and/or other equipment use only high quality shielded cables. NOTE: This instrument has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This instrument generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this instrument does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the instrument off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures: • Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna. • Increase the separation between the instrument and the receiver. • Connect the instrument into an outlet on a circuit other than the one to which the receiver is connected. • If necessary consult your dealer or an experienced radio/television technician for additional suggestions. The normal function of the product may be disturbed by strong electromagnetic interference. If so, simply reset the product to resume normal operation by following the instructions in the manual. If normal function does not resume, please use the product in another location. NOTICE This apparatus does not exceed the Class B limits for radio noise emissions from digital apparatus set out in the Radio Interference Regulations of the Canadian Department of Communications. AVIS Le present appareil numerique n’emet pas de bruits radioelectriques depassant les limites applicables aux appareils numeriques de la class B prescrites dans le Reglement sur le brouillage radioelectrique edicte par le ministere des Communications du Canada.

SAVE THESE INSTRUCTIONS ii IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS 1) Read these instructions. 2) Keep these instructions. 3) Heed all warnings. 4) Follow all instructions. 5) Do not use this apparatus near water. 6) Clean only with dry cloth. 7) Do not block any of the ventilation openings. Install in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. 8) Do not install near any heat sources such as radiators, heat registers, stoves, or other apparatus (including amplifiers) that produce heat. 9) Do not defeat the safety purpose of the polarized or grounding-type plug. A polarized plug has two blades with one wider than the other. A grounding type plug has two blades and a third grounding prong. The wide blade or the third prong are provided for your safety. If the provided plug does not fit into your outlet, consult an electrician for replacement of the obsolete outlet 10) Protect the power cord from being walked on or pinched, particularly at plugs, convenience receptacles, and the point where they exit from the apparatus. 11) Only use attachments/accessories specified by the manufacturer. 12) Use only with a cart, stand, tripod, bracket, or table specified by the manufacturer, or sold with the apparatus. When a cart is used, use caution when moving the cart/apparatus combination to avoid injury from tip-over. 13) Unplug this apparatus during lightning storms or when unused for long periods of time. 14) Refer all servicing to qualified service personnel. Servicing is required when the apparatus has been damaged in any way, such as power-supply cord or plug is damaged, liquid has been spilled or objects have fallen into the apparatus, the apparatus has been exposed to rain or moisture, does not operate normally, or has been dropped. Warning: To reduce the risk of fire or electric shock, do not expose this apparatus to rain or moisture. Do not expose this equipment to dripping or splashing and ensure that no objects filled with liquids, such as vases, are placed on the equipment. To completely disconnect this equipment from the AC Mains, disconnect the power supply cord plug from the AC receptacle. As with most electronic equipment, the outer cables may contain phthalate and the copper alloy power plug contains lead. Wash hands after handling. ©2019 HDC-Young Chang Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Kurzweil® is a product line of HDC-Young Chang Co., Ltd. Kurzweil®, HDC-Young Chang®, V. A. S. T.®, PC4® and FlashPlay™ are trademarks of HDC-Young Chang Co., Ltd. All other trademarks and copyrights are property of their respective companies. Product features and specifications are subject to change without notice. U.S. Patents 6,806,413, 6,978,288, 8,263,849 You may legally print up to two (2) copies of this document for personal use. Commercial use of any copies of this document is prohibited. HDC-Young Chang Co. retains ownership of all intellectual property represented by this document. iii Kurzweil International Contacts Contact the Kurzweil office listed below to locate your local Kurzweil representative.

US Customers: American Music & Sound 925 Broadbeck Dr #220 Newbury Park, CA 91320 Tel: 800-431-2609 Fax: 818-597-0411 Email: info@americanmusicandsound.com kurzweil.com support@kurzweil.com Customers outside the US: HDC YOUNG CHANG 196, Bongsu-daero, Seo-gu Incheon, Korea Post Code: 22840 Tel: +82-32-570-1570 Fax: +82-32-576-2340

facebook.com/kurzweilmusicsystems/ twitter.com/KurzweilMusic youtube.com/user/KurzweilTutorials iv Table of Contents Kurzweil International Contacts......................................................iv Getting Started ........................................... 1-1 Features.......................................................................................... 1-1 Software Updates .......................................................................... 1-2 Quick Start ..................................................................................... 1-3 The Front Panel ............................................................................. 1-5 The Rear Panel............................................................................... 1-8 PC4 Sounds ................................................................................. 1-12 Modes ........................................................................................... 1-14 Double Button Presses............................................................... 1-16 Program Mode............................................ 2-1 Selecting Programs....................................................................... 2-1 Program Demo............................................................................... 2-2 The Display .................................................................................... 2-3 Controllers ..................................................................................... 2-5 The Split and Layer Soft Buttons................................................. 2-6 Changing the MIDI Channel.......................................................... 2-9 Panic............................................................................................... 2-9 Save User Programs ................................................................... 2-10 Program Edit Mode .................................... 3-1 Program Types............................................................................... 3-1 Editing VAST Programs ................................................................ 3-2 Navigation ...................................................................................... 3-4 The PARAMS Page ........................................................................ 3-6 The FX Page................................................................................. 3-13 The Layer FX (LYR FX) Page ...................................................... 3-16 The COMMON Page .................................................................... 3-17 The Arpeggiator (ARP) Page ...................................................... 3-22 v The CC Sequencer (CC SEQ) Page............................................ 3-35 The KEYMAP Page ...................................................................... 3-40 The LAYER Page.......................................................................... 3-45 The Wiring Algorithm (ALG) Page.............................................. 3-50 The DSP Control (DSP CTL) Page.............................................. 3-54 The DSP Modulation (DSP MOD) Page...................................... 3-56 The OUTPUT Page....................................................................... 3-58 The Amplitude Envelope (AMP ENV) Page ............................... 3-61 The Envelope 2 (ENV2) and Envelope 3 (ENV3) Pages............ 3-66 The LFO+ Page ............................................................................ 3-67 The Soft Button Functions ......................................................... 3-71 The Mode Button Functions....................................................... 3-73 Editing VAST Programs With KVA Oscillators.......................... 3-74 Editing FM Layers........................................................................ 3-82 FM MAIN Page.............................................................................. 3-83 FM Operator Page........................................................................ 3-86 FM Layer Page ............................................................................. 3-91 FM Amp + Output Page............................................................... 3-97 FM Alt Input Page ........................................................................ 3-99 FM Operator Mute Page ............................................................ 3-106 Editing KB3 Programs .............................................................. 3-107 KB3 Editor: Navigation ............................................................. 3-109 KB3 Editor: The Parameters (PARAMS) Page ........................ 3-109 KB3 Editor: The Program FX (FX) Page .................................. 3-109 KB3 Editor: The COMMON Page ............................................. 3-109 KB3 Editor: The Drawbars (DRAWBAR) Page .........................3-111 KB3 Editor: The Tone Wheels (TONEWL) Page...................... 3-112 KB3 Editor: The PITCH Page.................................................... 3-114 KB3 Editor: The AMP Page....................................................... 3-114 KB3 Editor: The EQ Page.......................................................... 3-115 KB3 Editor: The PERC Page..................................................... 3-115 KB3 Editor: The KEYCLICK Page ............................................ 3-117 vi KB3 Editor: The LFO+, ARP and CC SEQ Pages.................... 3-119 The Effects Chain Editor ........................... 4-1 The MAIN Page .............................................................................. 4-2 The MOD Pages ............................................................................. 4-3 FXLFO+ page ................................................................................. 4-5 INFO page....................................................................................... 4-6 The Chain Utility Soft Buttons...................................................... 4-7 Effects Parameters........................................................................ 4-9 Keymap and Sample Editing..................... 5-1 The Keymap Editor........................................................................ 5-1 Building a Keymap ........................................................................ 5-8 Editing Samples........................................................................... 5-10 Multi Mode .................................................. 6-1 Selecting Multis ............................................................................. 6-1 The Display .................................................................................... 6-2 Controllers ..................................................................................... 6-3 The Split and Layer Soft Buttons................................................. 6-6 Save User Multis............................................................................ 6-9 Recording A Multi To Song Mode .............................................. 6-11 Multi Edit Mode........................................... 7-1 Navigation ...................................................................................... 7-1 OVERVIEW Page............................................................................ 7-3 MAIN Page...................................................................................... 7-5 CONTROLS Page......................................................................... 7-13 FX Page ........................................................................................ 7-27 ARP Page ..................................................................................... 7-29 CC Sequencer (CC SEQ) Page ................................................... 7-30 RIFF Page..................................................................................... 7-31 COMMON Page ............................................................................ 7-40 Audio In FX (AUDIO IN) Page ..................................................... 7-41 vii The Soft Button Functions ......................................................... 7-42 The Mode Button Functions....................................................... 7-43 Song Mode.................................................. 8-1 The TRANSPORT Section............................................................. 8-2 The Save Changes Dialog............................................................. 8-3 The MAIN Page .............................................................................. 8-5 The MIXER Page .......................................................................... 8-14 The MISC Page............................................................................. 8-17 Soft Button Functions................................................................. 8-19 The FILTER Page ......................................................................... 8-20 The FX Page................................................................................. 8-22 The TRACK Page......................................................................... 8-23 The EVENT Page.......................................................................... 8-36 Global Mode................................................ 9-1 About Global Mode........................................................................ 9-1 MAIN 1 Page................................................................................... 9-1 MAIN 2 Page................................................................................... 9-9 FX (Master FX Page).................................................................... 9-16 FILE (Storage Page) .................................................................... 9-17 MIDI Page ..................................................................................... 9-23 OBJECTS Page............................................................................ 9-27 SAMPLES ..................................................................................... 9-28 MIXER ........................................................................................... 9-29 TEMPO.......................................................................................... 9-30 INFO.............................................................................................. 9-31 TOOLS Page................................................................................. 9-31 RESET Page................................................................................. 9-33 Troubleshooting....................................... 10-1 Maintenance................................................................................. 10-1 Common Problems...................................................................... 10-1 MIDI Problems.............................................................................. 10-5 viii Pedal Problems..................................................................................6 Other Problems..................................................................................6 MIDI Implementation..................................A-1 Specifications.............................................B-1 Programs ....................................................C-1 Multis...........................................................D-1 Index............................................................. I-1 ix Getting Started Features Chapter 1 Getting Started This chapter will give you a quick overview of the PC4. Features Sounds • FlashPlay technology utilizing 2GB of instrument samples including: • Optimized German D and Japanese C7 Pianos, Triple Strike Piano, 73 Electric Piano, Clavinets, Harpsichords, Celeste, Bowed and Hit Crotales, Vector Synthesis Waveforms • Updated Rock, Synth and Orchestral sounds from Kurzweil’s SP6, PC3, and KORE64 • 13 Categories of Programs (Piano, E. Piano, Clav, Organ, Strings, Pad, Synth, Brass/Wind, Ensemble, Hybrid, Guitar/Bass, Drum/Perc, Misc) • 2GB of user sample memory for loading samples from WAV, AIF, P3K, and K series files • KB3 ToneReal ™ organ simulations with 9 sliders as drawbars • KSR: Kurzweil String Resonance (piano string resonance simulation) • FM: Classic 6 operator FM synthesis • Half-Damper pedal support (for piano “half pedaling” sustain techniques) • Kurzweil’s highly acclaimed VAST Synthesis and FX engine • More than 1000 Factory Programs divided into 13 Categories • More than 50 Factory Multis • More than 4000 User IDs to save your own Programs and Multis • Audio input jacks with FX (one 1/8” stereo line-in and 1/4” stereo line-in pair) • 256 voices of polyphony • 16 Zone MIDI controller in Multi Mode for Splits and Layers • 16 MIDI Tracks in Song Mode • Arpeggiator with dedicated front panel controls (up to 16 simultaneous in Multi Mode) 1-1 Getting Started Software Updates Keyboard and Controllers The PC4 has an 88-key fully-weighted hammer action keyboard that provides you with a piano-like feel. The PC4-7 has a 76-key semi-weighted action keyboard. The array of physical controllers includes: • 9 assignable sliders • 9 assignable knobs • 10 assignable switch buttons • Pitch Wheel and assignable Modulation Wheel • Tap tempo button and tempo knob • 2 Transpose buttons • Monopressure (Aftertouch) • 2 assignable switch pedal jacks (supports up to 4 switch pedals with 2 pedals per jack) • 2 assignable CC pedal jacks • Assignable ribbon controller jack Pedals (Optional) The PC4 has four jacks on the rear panel for optional pedal controllers. Two switch pedal jacks are typically used to control two-state (i.e., on / off) parameters such as sustain, sostenuto, and soft pedal. A Half Damper pedal (also known as a continuous switch pedal) can be used to allow for “half pedaling” sustain techniques when playing PC4 piano programs. Each jack also supports dual switch pedals, allowing up to 4 switch pedals to be used. Two continuous control (or CC) pedal jacks are typically used to control continuous parameters such as volume and wah. Your Kurzweil dealer stocks the following pedals: • KP-1 Single piano-style switch pedal • KP-1H Single piano-style Half Damper pedal • CC-1 Continuous pedal Software Updates Be sure to check the Kurzweil website at kurzweil.com for new sounds, documentation and software updates. See the Info page in Global mode to check the currently installed OS version. 1-2 Getting Started Quick Start Quick Start Setting Up the PC4 1. If your PC4 has been out in the cold during shipping, give it time to warm up to room temperature before powering it on, since condensation may have formed inside. 2. Place the PC4 on a keyboard stand or on a hard, flat, level surface. 3. Connect the DC power adaptor to the PC4 DC Power jack. 4. Make sure your power outlet is compatible with the included power adaptor, then plug the power cable into the power outlet. 5. Plug the included Switch Pedal into the SW1 (SUSTAIN) jack on the PC4 rear panel. 6. If you have an additional switch pedal, plug it into the SW2 jack for Sostenuto control. 7. If you have a MIDI CC pedal (also known as a MIDI expression or volume pedal), plug it into the CC1 (VOLUME) jack for volume control. 8. If you are using speakers, turn the master volume all the way down on your amplifier or mixer. Using standard (1/4-inch) audio cables, first plug into the input jacks of your amplifier or mixer, then plug the other end of the cables into the PC4 AUDIO OUT A jacks. (Connecting in this order minimizes the possibility of static discharge damage.) For a mono signal, only use the LEFT (MONO) A jack, and leave the RIGHT A jack unplugged. Balanced (“TRS” or “Stereo”) cables are recommended if your mixer or amp supports balanced inputs. 9. If you are using headphones, connect stereo headphones to the headphone jack on the rear panel. 10. Move the PC4 VOLUME slider (on the far left side of the front panel) to the minimum (closer to the keys). 1-3 Getting Started Quick Start Powering On the PC4 1. Power on the PC4 by pressing the POWER button on the right rear panel. 2. If you are using speakers, turn up the volume on your amplifier or mixer. 3. Slowly turn up the PC4 VOLUME Slider and play some notes to check the volume level. (If you have a CC pedal plugged into the CC (VOLUME) jack, make sure it is set to the maximum volume position). 4. If you are using speakers and the PC4 is not loud enough, turn up the volume on your amplifier or mixer. 5. If you are using a mixer and hear distortion, reduce the gain level on the mixer, or use the mixer’s Pad button if it has one (a button that typically decreases the audio input level by 20dB). 6. After using the PC4, if you are using speakers, turn the master volume all the way down on your amplifier or mixer before powering off the PC4. Auditioning PC4 Sounds 1. The PC4 starts up in Program Mode. Use the PREVIOUS and NEXT buttons, Alpha Wheel, or CATEGORY buttons to select a different Program. See PC4 Sounds on page 1-12 for more details on selecting Programs or Multis. 1. To hear a Program Demo song for the current Program, press the 0/MISC and ENTER buttons simultaneously. 2. To hear the capabilities of the PC4, you can play the multi-channel demo songs. Press the USER and 0/MISC buttons simultaneously to listen to a multi-channel demo song. 3. To switch between auditioning Programs or Multis, press the PROGRAM or MULTI Mode button under the MODE label to the right of the display. Automatic Power Saving The PC4 has an automatic power saving feature (Auto Power Off) that can automatically power off the PC4 after a period of inactivity, in order to conserve electricity. The Auto Power Off feature is enabled by default. The default Power Off Time is 8 hours, which will cause the PC4 to power off after 8 hours of inactivity. A count down timer warning will be shown in the display a few minutes before the PC4 is powered off. At any time, touching any PC4 control or playing a note will cause the PC4 to remain powered on, until the PC4 has been inactive for the set Power Off Time. Auto Power Off can be disabled in Global Mode. The Power Off Time can also be adjusted in Global Mode. 1-4 Getting Started The Front Panel The Front Panel TRANSPOSE Buttons VARIATION Button CONTROL Section CHANNEL/LAYER/ZONE/TRACK Buttons Display Navigation Buttons Alpha Wheel MODE Buttons CATEGORY Buttons

VOLUME Slider Pitch Wheel and Modulation Wheel VOLUME Slider ARPEGGIATOR TEMPO TRANSPORT Sections PREVIOUS/NEXT Buttons EXIT Button Soft Buttons SAVE Button and EDIT Button

The VOLUME Slider controls the volume level of the AUDIO OUT and HEADPHONE jacks. Display The display is the main user interface for the PC4. Use the display to view Program and Multi names, controller assignments, and editing functions. 1-5 Getting Started The Front Panel Soft Buttons The 6 buttons below the display are called soft buttons. Soft buttons change their functions depending upon which page is being displayed. The functions of the soft buttons on each page are described in the bottom row of the display. Navigation Buttons The Navigation buttons move the cursor in the display and allow you to select the current parameter to be edited. Alpha Wheel In Program and Multi Mode, use the Alpha Wheel to navigate through the Program or Multi list. In Program Edit or Multi Edit Mode, use the Alpha Wheel to scroll through the list of values for the currently selected parameter. Turn the Alpha Wheel counter-clockwise or clockwise to select the previous or next value. Turn the Alpha Wheel slowly to change the value by one increment, or turn it quickly to jump several increments. PREVIOUS and NEXT Buttons In Program and Multi Mode, use the PREVIOUS and NEXT buttons to navigate through the Program or Multi list. In any mode, use the PREVIOUS and NEXT buttons to navigate through the list of values for the currently selected parameter. MODE Buttons Press the MODE buttons to access PROGRAM, MULTI, SONG or GLOBAL Mode. See Modes on page 1-14 for a description of each Mode. CATEGORY Buttons In Program Mode, the CATEGORY buttons allow you to select and browse Programs in 13 categories of instruments. Engaging the KEYPAD button allows you to use the CATEGORY buttons as an alphanumeric keypad. The KEYPAD button is always on in Multi Mode, and where needed for editing parameter values. 1-6 Getting Started The Front Panel TRANSPOSE Buttons The TRANSPOSE buttons can be used to change the tuning of notes played on the PC4 keyboard in semitones (also known as half steps). The current transpose amount is shown in the top line of the display. Press both TRANSPOSE buttons simultaneously to reset the transposition to 0. Pitch Wheel and Modulation Wheel Use each wheel to respectively perform pitch bends or vary the modulation amount. The Modulation Wheel will control modulation for each Program or Multi. The name of the current modulation assignment is shown in the display when the wheel is moved. VARIATION Button Pressing the VARIATION button will perform an assigned variation for each Program or Multi. The name of the current assignment is shown in the display when the button is pressed. The VARIATION button has two states, off (not lit) and on (lit). The VARIATION button will typically modify the sound by adding an orchestral string section or synth pad layer, or enabling an effect. For KB3 Organ Programs, the VARIATION button controls the Rotary Speaker speed, changing between fast and slow. The display shows “KB3” when a KB3 Program is selected. CONTROL Section The CONTROL section is used to control various Program and Multi parameters. In Program Mode: The knobs, sliders, and buttons control synthesis and FX parameters for the current Program. Controller assignments can be adjusted or set to user-assignable parameters in Program Edit Mode. In Multi Mode: The knobs, sliders, and buttons typically control Zone volume, synthesis and FX parameters for the current Multi. Controller assignments can be adjusted or set to user-assignable parameters in Multi Edit Mode. In Program and Multi Mode: When a KB3 Organ Program is selected, some of the knobs, sliders, and buttons may perform Organ functions labeled on the front panel. The display shows “KB3” when a KB3 Program is selected. ARPEGGIATOR Section Use the ARP and LATCH buttons to control the PC4’s Arpeggiator. 1-7 Getting Started The Rear Panel TEMPO Section Use the TEMPO section to set the tempo of the Arpeggiator, the rate of tempo synced FX (such as Delay), or the tempo of the current Multi or Song. To set the tempo press the TAP button a few times at the desired rate, or use the TEMPO knob. TRANSPORT Section Use the buttons in the TRANSPORT section to control recording and playback in Song mode. SAVE Button and EDIT Button These buttons are used when editing Programs, Multis, or other User objects. In Program Mode, press the SAVE button to save a User Program with the current controller settings. EXIT Button Press the EXIT button to exit the current editor. Press the EXIT button repeatedly to return to Program Mode. CHANNEL/LAYER/ZONE/TRACK Buttons Use the CHANNEL/LAYER/ZONE/TRACK buttons to change the current MIDI Channel in Program Mode, the current Layer in Program Edit Mode, the current Zone in Multi Edit Mode, or the current Track in Song Mode. The Rear Panel POWER Button Press the POWER button to power the PC4 on or off. DC Power Jack Plug the included power adaptor into the DC Power jack. 1-8 Getting Started The Rear Panel MIDI IN and OUT Ports Use the MIDI ports to communicate with other MIDI modules and controllers. The OUT port is the MIDI transmitting port, and the IN port is the MIDI receiving port. To use the PC4 as a MIDI controller for another sound module, use a MIDI cable to connect the PC4’s MIDI OUT port to the MIDI input port of the module that you want to control. To control the PC4 using another MIDI controller, use a MIDI cable to connect the PC4’s MIDI IN port to the MIDI output port of the controller that you will be using. LCD Knob Use the LCD knob to control the display brightness. USB Ports Use the USB ports to connect the PC4 to a computer/tablet or USB hard drive in order to do the following: • Use the PC4 as a MIDI controller to play software instruments on a computer/tablet. • Use a computer/tablet to sequence multi-channel songs on the PC4. • Backup and restore User objects with a USB hard drive. • Update the software and sounds of the PC4 with a USB hard drive. SW1 (SUSTAIN) and SW2 Jacks Use the SW1 (SUSTAIN) and SW2 jacks to connect switch pedals. One switch pedal is included with the PC4. In Program Mode, SW1 (SUSTAIN) defaults to controlling Sustain, and SW2 defaults to controlling Sostenuto. (For KB3 Organ Programs, SW1 (SUSTAIN) defaults to controlling the Rotary Speaker speed, changing between fast and slow. This assignment can be changed in Global Mode. The LCD display shows “KB3” when a KB3 Program is selected.) In Multi Mode, pedal assignments can vary per Multi. Pedal assignments can be adjusted for each Zone by using Multi Edit Mode. Global Mode can be used to set pedal overrides, which can change the pedal assignments for all Programs and Multis. Note: Switch pedals must be plugged in before powering on the PC4. Do not to step on the switch pedals when powering on the PC4, as the state of the pedals is detected as part of the start up sequence. 1-9 Getting Started The Rear Panel Dual Switch Pedals The SW1 (SUSTAIN) and SW2 jacks can be connected to dual switch pedals (2 pedals per jack), allowing up to four switch pedals to be used. Compatible pedals should use a single 1/4 inch tip-ring-sleeve plug. Pedals plugged into the SW1 (SUSTAIN) jack are referred to as SW1a and SW1b, and pedals plugged into the SW2 jack are referred to as SW2a and SW2b. In Program Mode the default assignments are: SW1a Sustain SW1b Sostenuto SW2a Sostenuto SW2b Soft Pedal To emulate the 3 pedals of an acoustic piano, plug a single switch pedal into the SW1 (SUSTAIN) jack, and a dual switch pedal into the SW2 jack. Continuous Switch Pedals (Half-Damper) The SW1 (SUSTAIN) jack is also compatible with continuous switch pedals (Half-Damper) that use a 1/4 inch tip-ring-sleeve plug (such as the Kurzweil KP-1H). When connected to the SW1 (SUSTAIN) jack, a Half Damper pedal enables finer control of Sustain than a standard switch pedal. Half Damper control is enabled for Programs in the Piano category. Programs outside of the Piano category will respond to a Half Damper pedal as if it is a standard switch pedal. CC1 (VOLUME) and CC2 Jacks Use the CC1 (VOLUME) jack to connect a MIDI CC pedal (also known as a MIDI expression or volume pedal). By default this pedal is assigned to control Program and Multi volume (pre-FX). For KB3 Organ Programs, the CC1 (VOLUME) pedal controls organ swell. Organ swell is similar to Program volume, except volume can not be turned all the way down to silence. The LCD display shows “KB3” when a KB3 Program is selected. For User Programs and Multis, the CC1 (VOLUME) and CC2 pedals can be assigned to different functions by using Program Edit or Multi Edit Mode. 1-10 Getting Started The Rear Panel The optional Kurzweil CC-1 continuous control pedal will work best with the PC4, but it is also possible to use third-party continuous control pedals designed for keyboards. Compatible pedals should use a 10 kΩ linear-taper potentiometer, with a 1/4 inch tip-ring sleeve (stereo) plug with the wiper connected to the tip. RIBBON Jack Use the RIBBON jack to plug in the optional Kurzweil Ribbon Controller. By default the ribbon controls pitch bend, but you can also program the ribbon controller to send other MIDI messages. To use the ribbon controller, just press it, and slide your finger along the ribbon to change the value of the message it’s sending. You can configure the ribbon to have one control section that runs its entire length, or to have three sections of equal length. It sends its highest values when you press it at the end where the cable connects. When you configure it to have three sections, each section sends its highest values at the end closest to the cable. Caution: The modular jack is designed for connection to the Kurzweil Ribbon Controller option only. Don’t plug any other modular plugs into the Ribbon jack. AUDIO IN LINE/LEFT/RIGHT Jacks Use the AUDIO IN jacks to mix external audio sources with the sounds of the PC4. This is useful for playing along with backing tracks from a portable music player, computer, or other electronic instrument. The LINE jack accepts a stereo 1/8” plug at line level, suitable for input from MP3 players and computers. The LEFT and RIGHT jacks each accept a 1/4” plug at line level, suitable for input from mixers and electronic instruments. Sources that are not line level (typically guitars and microphones) should be amplified with a pre-amp, mixer, audio interface or other device. Input volume and FX can be adjusted in Global Mode. AUDIO OUT LEFT (MONO) and RIGHT A/B Jacks Use the AUDIO OUT A/B jacks to connect to an amplifier or mixer. See Quick Start on page 1-3 for details. HEADPHONE Jack Use the HEADPHONE jack located on the left rear panel of the instrument to listen to the PC4 on stereo headphones. You will need a 1/8-inch-to-1/4-inch adapter in order to use headphones that have a smaller mini plug connector. When headphones are plugged in, audio is still transmitted from the AUDIO OUT jacks. 1-11 Getting Started PC4 Sounds PC4 Sounds The PC4 contains Programs and Multis. A Program is typically a single instrument sound such as a Piano, Organ, or Synth. Programs are organized by instrument type in 13 categories. A Multi is a combination of Programs arranged as layers and/or splits across the keyboard. Multis are not categorized by instrument type, so the KEYPAD button is always on when in Multi Mode. Selecting Programs In Program Mode, use any of the methods below to select a Program. Browse All Programs Make sure the USER button is off, then use the Alpha Wheel or PREVIOUS and NEXT buttons to select a Program from all of the available Programs. Select a Program by Category Make sure the KEYPAD button is off, then press one of the CATEGORY buttons to select the first Program of a category (or the current Category Default Program). The selected CATEGORY button will turn on. Use the Alpha Wheel or PREVIOUS and NEXT buttons to select Programs from the selected category. Select a Previously Saved User Program Press and turn on the USER button, then use the Alpha Wheel or PREVIOUS and NEXT buttons to browse only User Programs. To return to browsing Factory and User Programs, press and turn off the USER button. Select a Program by ID Number Press and turn on the KEYPAD button. The keypad button allows you to use the numbers labeled on the CATEGORY buttons to select Programs or Multis by ID number. Type an ID number followed by pressing the ENTER button to select the associated Program. Select a Category Default Program Each category has a Category Default Program (the Program which is selected when each CATEGORY button is pressed). By default the Category Default Program is set to the first Program of each category. To set a different Category Default Program, select a Program, make sure the KEYPAD button is off, then press and hold the currently lit CATEGORY button. 1-12 Getting Started PC4 Sounds Selecting Multis In Multi Mode, use any of the methods below to select a Multi. Browse All Multis Make sure the USER button is off, then use the Alpha Wheel or PREVIOUS and NEXT buttons to select a Multi from all of the available Multis. Select a Multi by ID Number Use the CATEGORY buttons to type an ID number followed by pressing the ENTER button. Select a Previously Saved User Multi Press and turn on the USER button, then use the Alpha Wheel or PREVIOUS and NEXT buttons to browse only User Multis. To return to browsing Factory and User Multis, press and turn off the USER button. VIEW Soft Button and Quick Access View In Program or Multi Mode, press the VIEW soft button to switch between the default Large view, List view, and Quick Access view. Quick Access view shows the names of 10 favorite Programs and/or Multis, which can be selected by pressing the corresponding numbers on the Keypad. To access more than 10 Programs/Multis, use the CHANNEL/LAYER/ZONE/TRACK buttons to select a different Quick Access Bank. Programs or Multis which are not stored in a Quick Access Bank can be browsed by using the ALPHA WHEEL or PREVIOUS/NEXT buttons. When Quick Access view is selected, press and hold one of the Keypad buttons (0 through 9) to store the currently selected Program or Multi to a spot in the current Quick Access Bank. For details on Quick Access view, see “Display” on page 9-3. Controllers The Sliders, Knobs, Buttons, Wheels, and Pedals can control each of the Factory Programs and Multis, to produce variations to the sound. Don’t forget to try these out as you explore the Factory sounds on the PC4. Generally, each control will perform the assignment labeled on the front panel, although some controls may have different assignments per Program or Multi. When a controller is moved, the name of the current assignment is shown in the display. Controller assignments can be adjusted in Program and Multi Edit Mode. 1-13 Getting Started Modes Splits and Layers The Split and Layer function can be used to Split or Layer the current Program or Multi. Different keyboard regions can play different Programs, or multiple Programs can be played from the same region. To Split or Layer a Multi, it must contain at least one Zone which is unused (Off). In Program or Multi Mode, press the SPLIT or LAYER soft button to view the Split or Layer Page. You will then be able to configure up to three additional Programs to create a Split or Layered Multi containing up to four Programs. Press the SAVE button once to view the Save Dialog. The Save Dialog allows you to choose an ID number and name for the Split/Layer Multi you are saving. On the Multi Save Page, press the SAVE button again to save the Split/Layer Multi. After saving the Split or Layer as a Multi, additional Multi Controller and FX settings can be edited in Multi Edit Mode. Modes Program Mode The PC4 always powers up in Program Mode, where single instrument sounds can be played directly from the keyboard, or multitimbrally via MIDI. Saving Programs If you make changes to the current Program using any of the controllers (Knobs, Wheels or Buttons), the SAVE button turns on to indicate that a change has been made to that Program. To save a copy of the Program with the changes you’ve made, press the SAVE button once to view the Save Dialog. The Save Dialog allows you to choose an ID number and name for the Program you are saving. On the Program Save Page, press the SAVE button again to save the Program as a User Program. Program Edit Mode Program Edit Mode allows you to select parameters for the assignable knobs, sliders and buttons, adjust the current Program’s Arpeggiator settings, and adjust many other Program parameters. Multi Mode Multi Mode allows you to play Multis, which are arrangements of up to 16 Programs split and/or layered in Zones across selected ranges of the keyboard. 1-14 Getting Started Modes By default the volume of the Program in the first 4 Zones can be easily adjusted while playing by using the sliders 1-4, and each Zone can be turned on or off by using the buttons below these sliders. The remaining controls are typically assigned to FX and Synth parameters. Controller settings can be adjusted in Multi Edit Mode. Multi Edit Mode Multi Edit Mode is used to modify the many parameters that make up Multis, including Program Selection, Key Range, Volume, Pan, and Controller assignments. Use Multi Edit Mode to create custom sound combinations. To save a copy of the Multi with the changes you’ve made, press the SAVE button once to view the Save Dialog. The Save Dialog allows you to choose an ID number and name for the Multi you are saving. On the Multi Save Page, press the SAVE button again to save the Multi as a User Multi. Song Mode Song Mode allows you to record and play back songs, using up to 16 tracks of Programs. Global Mode Use Global Mode to adjust common settings that are shared between all Modes, such as velocity sensitivity and power saving options. Global Mode is also used for storing or loading User backup files, and restoring Factory default settings. Some of the more common settings are summarized below. Info The Info Page shows the currently installed operating system and sound object versions. Use this page to check if your PC4 is up to date with the most recent software and sounds posted at kurzweil.com. Reset You can return the PC4 to the Factory default state by doing a Reset. Caution: Reset will delete all User objects, so it is important to back up your User objects before doing a Reset. Factory objects are not deleted. Saving to External Storage User objects that you have created can be saved to a USB Flash Drive. 1-15 Getting Started Double Button Presses Loading from External Storage User objects can be loaded onto the PC4 from a USB Flash Drive. This allows you to load new sounds from Kurzweil or other developers, or to load sounds that you have previously saved. Double Button Presses Reset Transposition To reset the current Program or Multi transposition to 0, simultaneously press both of the TRANSPOSE -/+ buttons, or the OCTAVE+ and OCTAVE- soft buttons. Program Demo In Program Mode, to hear a Program Demo song for the current Program, press the 0/MISC and ENTER buttons simultaneously. Song Demo To hear the capabilities of the PC4, you can play the multi-channel demo songs. Press the USER and 0/MISC buttons simultaneously to listen to a multi-channel demo song. Panic Pressing the ENTER and KEYPAD buttons simultaneously deactivates all sounding notes by sending an “all notes off” message on all 16 MIDI channels. Select Channel / Layer / Zone / Track / QA Bank 1 In Program Mode, pressing both of the CHANNEL/LAYER/ZONE/TRACK buttons simultaneously will select MIDI channel 1. In Program Edit Mode, pressing both of the CHANNEL/LAYER/ZONE/TRACK buttons simultaneously will select Layer 1. In Multi Edit Mode, pressing both of the CHANNEL/LAYER/ZONE/TRACK buttons simultaneously will select Zone 1. In Song Mode, pressing both of the CHANNEL/LAYER/ZONE/TRACK buttons simultaneously will select Track 1. 1-16 Getting Started Double Button Presses In Program and Multi Mode, if Quick Access view is selected, pressing both of the CHANNEL/LAYER/ZONE/TRACK buttons simultaneously will select Quick Access Bank 1. Select Next Unused ID When selecting an ID number to save a previously saved User object, press the PREVIOUS and NEXT buttons simultaneously to jump between selecting the previously used ID number, and the next unused ID number. Search The Search page allows you to find any term or series of characters within the currently selected list or range of values. Hold the ENTER button and press one of the numeric buttons 1-9 to view the Search page. On the search page, use the category buttons to type the term you want to find, then press the ENTER button to search. For example, if the program list is selected and you want to find all programs containing the word “Horn,” you would type h-o-r-n followed by the ENTER button. The Search page is not case-sensitive; it will find upper and lower case characters regardless of what you type. After typing a term and pressing the ENTER button, the search page finds and selects the first instance of the term in the list (if it exists in the list). To find and select the next or previous instance of the term in the list, hold the ENTER button and press one of the NEXT or PREVIOUS button to search for the next higher-numbered or previous lower numbered object that contains the search term. Note: Each combination of the ENTER button and a numeric button 1-9 allows you store a different search term. For example, hold the ENTER button and press the 1 button, then search for a term like “piano”. The term “piano” will now be available whenever you hold the ENTER button and press the 1 button. Next, hold the ENTER button and press the 2 button, then search for “string”. The term “string” will now be available whenever you hold the ENTER button and press the 2 button. A different term can be stored for each of the numeric buttons 1-9. These terms are stored until power off. 1-17 Program Mode Selecting Programs Chapter 2 Program Mode Use Program Mode to play a Program directly from the keyboard, or to play up to 16 Programs multitimbrally via MIDI. Programs typically contain a single instrument sound, although some Programs may contain multiple instrument sounds. The PC4 always powers on with Program Mode selected. To enter Program Mode from another Mode, press and turn on the PROGRAM Mode button, or press the EXIT button repeatedly until you reach Program Mode. The PC4 powers on with Program 1 selected, or the Program that was selected the last time Global Mode was exited. Selecting Programs In Program Mode, use any of the methods below to select a Program. Browse All Programs Make sure the USER button is off, then use the ALPHA WHEEL or PREVIOUS and NEXT buttons to select a Program from all of the available Programs. Select a Program by Category Make sure the KEYPAD button is off, then press one of the CATEGORY buttons to select the first Program of a category (or the current Category Default Program). The selected CATEGORY button will turn on. Use the ALPHA WHEEL or PREVIOUS and NEXT buttons to select Programs from the selected category. 2-1 Program Mode Program Demo Select a Previously Saved User Program Press and turn on the USER button, then use the ALPHA WHEEL or PREVIOUS and NEXT buttons to browse only User Programs. To return to browsing Factory and User Programs, press and turn off the USER button. Select a Program by ID Number Press and turn on the KEYPAD button. The keypad button allows you to use the numbers labeled on the CATEGORY buttons to select Programs or Multis by ID number. Type an ID number followed by pressing the ENTER button to select the associated Program. Select a Category Default Program Each category has a Category Default Program (the Program which is selected when each CATEGORY button is pressed). By default the Category Default Program is set to the first Program of each category. To set a different Category Default Program, select a Program, make sure the KEYPAD button is off, then press and hold the currently lit CATEGORY button. Program Demo To hear a Program Demo song for the current Program, press the 0/MISC and ENTER buttons simultaneously. 2-2 Program Mode The Display The Display In Program Mode, the top line of the display shows the current Mode, MIDI transposition, MIDI In/Out activity indicators, and MIDI channel. If Quick Access view is selected, the current Quick Access Bank number will be shown instead of the current MIDI channel. The currently selected Program ID number and name are shown in the center of the display. If the selected program is a user program, a KB3 organ program, or if the program contains an FM layer, the USER, KB3, or FM icons are displayed next to the program name. MIDI In/Out Activity Indicators MIDI In/Out activity indicators are displayed at the top of the screen (shown as 2 MIDI port symbols with “I” for “in” and “O” for “out”). These indicators briefly light up when MIDI has been recently sent to or received by the PC4’s MIDI/USB ports. If the symbol is green, this indicates there has been MIDI activity on that port in the last few seconds. If the symbol is red, this indicates there has been communication with the external software editor on that port in the last few seconds. If the symbol is grey, this indicates there has been no MIDI activity on that port in the last few seconds. OCTAVE Soft Buttons The OCTAVE- and OCTAVE+ buttons can be used to change the tuning of notes played on the PC4 keyboard in octaves. The current transpose amount is shown in the top line of the display. Press both OCTAVE buttons simultaneously to reset the transposition to 0. The OCTAVE buttons also transpose MIDI notes sent to the USB and MIDI Out ports. 2-3 Program Mode The Display SPLIT and LAYER Soft Buttons Use the SPLIT and LAYER soft buttons to split and layer multiple Programs across the keyboard. For details see “The Split and Layer Soft Buttons” on page 2-6. CC SEQ Soft Button Press the CC SEQ soft button to turn the CC Sequencer On or Off. When the CC Sequencer is On, the CC SEQ soft button turns green. The CC Sequencer allows you to rhythmically modulate up to 4 program parameters (such as filter frequency) based on preset or user patterns. For details on the CC Sequencer, see “The CC Sequencer (CC SEQ) Page” on page 3-35. VIEW Soft Button and Quick Access View Press the VIEW soft button to switch between the default Large view, List view, and Quick Access view. Quick Access view shows the names of 10 favorite Programs and/or Multis, which can be selected by pressing the corresponding numbers on the Keypad. To access more than 10 Programs/Multis, use the CHANNEL/LAYER/ZONE/TRACK buttons to select a different Quick Access Bank. Programs or Multis which are not stored in a Quick Access Bank can be browsed by using the ALPHA WHEEL or PREVIOUS/NEXT buttons. When Quick Access view is selected, press and hold one of the Keypad buttons (0 through 9) to store the currently selected Program or Multi to a spot in the current Quick Access Bank. For details on Quick Access view, see “Display” on page 9-3. Note: When Quick Access view is selected, the Category buttons always select an entry in the current Quick Access bank, despite the state of the KEYPAD button. In Program Mode, when Quick Access is selected, the state of the KEYPAD button determines whether programs browsed by using the ALPHA WHEEL or PREVIOUS/NEXT buttons are ordered based on category order then ID number (KEYPAD off), or based on ID number only and ignoring category (KEYPAD on). 2-4 Program Mode Controllers Controllers In Program Mode, you can use the PC4 physical controllers (the Knobs, Sliders, Buttons, Wheels, Pedals, and Ribbon) to modify an instrument sound during a performance to add variation or expression. Note: Assigned parameter names are not visible in List view, or if the Global Mode “Show Controllers” parameter is set to No. If you make changes to the current Program using any of the controllers, the SAVE button lights up to indicate that a change has been made to that Program. For more information on the SAVE button, see Save User Programs on page 2-10. VAST Program Controller Assignments In each of the Factory VAST Programs, each control will usually perform the assignment labeled on the front panel between the Knobs and Sliders. Some controls may have different assignments per Program. When a controller is moved, the name of the current assignment is shown in the display. Controller assignments can be adjusted in Program Edit Mode. KB3 Program Controller Assignments In each of the Factory KB3 Organ Programs, each control will usually perform the assignment labeled on the front panel below the Sliders. The display shows “KB3” when a KB3 Program is selected. When a controller is moved, the name of the current assignment is shown in the display. Controller assignments can be adjusted in Program Edit Mode. TRANSPOSE Buttons The TRANSPOSE buttons can be used to change the tuning of notes played on the PC4 keyboard in semitones (also known as half steps). This is a convenient way to change the key of a song without learning to play it in a different key. The current transpose amount is shown in the top line of the display. Press both TRANSPOSE buttons simultaneously to reset the transposition to 0. The TRANSPOSE buttons also transpose MIDI notes sent to the USB and MIDI Out ports. 2-5 Program Mode The Split and Layer Soft Buttons The Split and Layer Soft Buttons The Split and Layer functions have identical parameters, but produce different results. The Split function allows you to quickly create a Multi such that keys in one range of the keyboard produce different sounds than another range. The Layer function allows you to layer Programs and Multis such that more than one instrument sound can be produced by playing one key. The Split and Layer functions allow you to quickly create Multis without using Multi Edit Mode to configure Zone key ranges, Programs, and volumes. After creating and saving a Split or Layer Multi, you can edit additional Multi parameters in Multi Edit mode. The Split Function When you create a Split in Program Mode, you are creating a Multi with two Zones set to On. The Program you were using in Program Mode is used in the right hand of the Split as the Zone 1 Program. You can choose a Program that will be used in the left hand of the Split as the Zone 2 Program. Follow these steps to create a Split: 1. In Program Mode, select a Program for the right hand of the Split. 2. Press the SPLIT soft button. 3. On the “Split” Page, Zone 2 is selected with a default Bass Program selected for the left hand of the Split. Use the ALPHA WHEEL or CATEGORY buttons to select a different Program for the left hand of the Split. 2-6 Program Mode The Split and Layer Soft Buttons 4. If desired you may wish to adjust additional Split parameters, described in Split and Layer Parameters on page 2-7. 5. Press the SAVE button to save your Split as a Multi (See below for details on saving). After saving your Split Multi, you can edit additional Multi parameters in Multi Edit mode. The Layer Function When you create a Layer in Program Mode, you are creating a Multi with two Zones set to On. The Program you were using in Program Mode is used for the Zone 1 Program. You can choose a Program that will be used as the layered Zone 2 Program. Follow these steps to create a Layer: 1. In Program Mode, select a Program that you wish to layer. 2. Press the LAYER soft button. 3. On the “Layer” Page, Zone 2 is selected with a default layer Program selected for the layered Zone 2 Program. Use the ALPHA WHEEL or CATEGORY buttons to select a different Program for the layered Zone 2 Program. 4. If desired you may wish to adjust additional Layer parameters, described in Split and Layer Parameters on page 2-7. 5. Press the SAVE button to save your Layer as a Multi (See below for details on saving). After saving your Layer Multi, you can edit additional Multi parameters in Multi Edit mode. Split and Layer Parameters There are five parameters (described below) that determine the behavior of Splits and Layers. Use the cursor buttons to access each of the parameters for each active Zone. Status (Zone Status) You can activate additional Zones with the Status parameter or the buttons in the front panel CONTROL section. Program Use the Program parameter to select a Program for each Zone. Use the Category buttons, the Alpha Wheel, the Previous/Next buttons, or enable the Keypad button and type an ID number followed by the Enter button. 2-7 Program Mode The Split and Layer Soft Buttons Volume To change the volume of a Zone, use the cursor buttons to select the Volume parameter for one of the Zones. To set a volume, use the Alpha Wheel, the Previous/Next buttons, or use the keypad function of the Category buttons to type a volume (0-127) followed by the Enter button. A value of “None” will use the last volume value used by the Zone’s MIDI channel (often set by the expression pedal). A value of “None” can be entered by scrolling below 0, or by using the keypad function of the Category buttons to type negative 1 by pressing the small +/- button and then the 1 button, followed by the Enter button. Key Range You can adjust the boundary between the left and right hand Programs on the keyboard by adjusting the Key Range low and Key Range high parameters for each Zone. The keyboard display for each Zone shows a visual indication of the Key Range by dimming keys that are outside of the Key Range. To change the Key Range of a Zone, use the cursor buttons to select the Key Range low or Key Range high parameters for one of the Zones. Key Range low and Key Range high are the left and right parameters, respectively, below the Key Range label. With one of these parameters selected, set the Key Range by using the Alpha Wheel, the Previous/Next buttons, or use the keypad function of the Category buttons to type a key number (0-127) followed by the Enter button. With Key Range low or Key Range high selected, the value can also be changed by holding the Enter button, then pressing the desired key. Pan To change the panning of a Zone (left/right stereo placement), use the cursor buttons to select the Pan parameter for one of the Zones. To set a Pan value, use the Alpha Wheel, the Previous/Next buttons, or use the keypad function of the Category buttons to type a pan value (0-127) followed by the Enter button. A value of 0 is full left, 64 is center, and 127 is full right. Other values will move the stereo placement in between these positions. A value of “None” will use the last pan value used by the Zone’s MIDI channel. A value of “None” can be entered by scrolling below 0, or by using the keypad function of the Category buttons to type negative 1 by pressing the +/- button and then the 1 button, followed by the Enter button. Saving a Split or Layer After setting the Split or Layer parameters, your changes can be saved as a Multi that it can easily be recalled in Multi Mode. Press the Save button to the left of the display to begin the saving process. A Multi name is automatically created using half of the original Program name and half of the default Zone 2 program name. This name can be edited during the saving process.See Saving a User Multi on page 6-10 in the Multi Mode Chapter for details on saving. 2-8 Program Mode Changing the MIDI Channel Once you have saved your Split or Layer as a Multi, you can continue to add additional Zones, edit controller assignments (like effects controls and sustain pedal per Zone), transposition per Zone, and other Multi parameters. (See Ch. 7 Multi Edit Mode for details.) Changing the MIDI Channel The current MIDI channel is shown on the right side of the top line of the display. Press the CHANNEL/LAYER/ZONE/TRACK Up or Down buttons to change the MIDI channel. Pressing both of the CHANNEL/LAYER/ZONE/TRACK buttons simultaneously will select MIDI channel 1. A different Program can be selected for each MIDI Channel. All channels can be triggered simultaneously from an external MIDI sequencer or computer. Note: The Aux FX Chains of the Program on the currently selected MIDI channel are used for Programs on all Channels. Note: If Quick Access view is selected, the CHANNEL/LAYER/ZONE/TRACK Up or Down buttons will select the current Quick Access Bank , and the Quick Access Bank number will be shown instead of the current MIDI channel. For details on Quick Access view, see “Display” on page 9-3. Panic Pressing the ENTER and KEYPAD buttons simultaneously deactivates all sounding notes by sending an “all notes off” message on all 16 MIDI channels. 2-9 Program Mode Save User Programs Save User Programs If you make changes to the current Program using any of the controllers, the Save button’s LED lights to indicate that a change has been made to that Program. To save a copy of the Program with the changes you’ve made, press the Save button once to view the Save Dialog. The Save Dialog allows you to choose an ID number to that will be associated with the program you are saving. When viewing the Save Dialog, you can quickly save the Program to the displayed ID number by pressing the Save button again. Changing ID Numbers The display shows the first available ID number and the current Program name. User Programs can be saved to ID numbers from 4096 to 8191. If you are saving a Program that has not been previously edited, the next available unused ID number will be selected. If you are saving a previously edited User Program, the ID number that the Program was last saved with will be selected. Press the Previous and Next buttons simultaneously to toggle between selecting the ID number that the Program was last saved with and the next available unused ID number. To change the ID number, turn the Alpha Wheel or use the Previous/Next buttons to select the new ID number. The label underneath indicates if it is an “Unused ID”. You can also use the keypad function of the Category buttons to type an ID number, followed by pressing the Enter button If you select an ID currently in use, the display will notify you that by saving you will “replace” the Program currently in that location. Confirm overwriting of the existing Program by pressing Save, or choose a different ID. 2-10 Program Mode Save User Programs Naming a User Program To rename the Program, first press the RENAME soft button. The display shows the current Program name. Use the Category buttons, Alpha Wheel or Previous/Next buttons to change each character. Use the Left/Right cursor buttons or <<< >>> soft buttons to move the cursor. Press the +/- button to switch between upper and lower case characters. Use the Insert button to insert a blank space. The selected character and all characters to the right will move one space to the right. Use the Delete button to delete the current character (all the characters to the right will move one space to the left). Saving a User Program Press the Save button or Save soft button to complete the saving process, or press the Cancel soft button to exit without saving. After successfully saving, the Program will be selected in Program Mode. To find the Program again later, press the User button and scroll to the Program ID. You can also find the program by pressing the appropriate Category button and scrolling past the factory programs. Lastly, you can press the Keypad button so that its LED is lit, type the Program ID number, then press the Enter button. 2-11 Program Edit Mode Program Types Chapter 3 Program Edit Mode Program Edit Mode allows you to edit and customize Programs. Any Program can be edited in Program Edit Mode and saved to a User ID. To enter Program Edit Mode, first press the PROGRAM Mode button to enter Program Mode, then press the EDIT button. Program Types The PC4 contains VAST and KB3 Programs. VAST Programs can use layers of samples and synthesis suitable for generating a wide variety of traditional instrument sounds, as well as synthesizer sounds. For details on editing VAST programs, see Editing VAST Programs on page 3-2. KB3 Programs contain a set of oscillators designed to emulate the tone wheels in a classic tone wheel organ. For details on editing KB3 programs, see Editing KB3 Programs on page 3-107. 3-1 Program Edit Mode Editing VAST Programs Editing VAST Programs VAST Program Features VAST programs can utilize many common synthesizer features, in addition to some uncommon features. Some notable features: • KDFX: Each of the 32 possible VAST layers can be individually processed by a layer insert FX Chain. All Layers can be processed a common insert FX Chain and two common Aux FX Chains. • Intonation and Tuning Maps: Each VAST program can have its own Intonation Map (tuning repeated across each octave) and Tuning Map (tuning per note). • KSR: Kurzweil Piano String Resonance Simulation. • CC Sequencer: A step sequencer to control synthesizer parameters. • KVA Oscillators: Anti-aliased synthesizer oscillators. • Cascade Mode: Route the audio of any of the 32 layers of a program into the DSP ALG of any other layer. • Dynamic VAST: Combine different DSP functions in any order you like, including parallel and serial configurations. • FM Layers: FM layers contain a set of oscillators designed to emulate classic 6 operator FM synthesizers. VAST Program Structure The diagram below depicts the hierarchy of a VAST program, from individual samples all the way up to Multis, which can contain up to 16 programs. Every VAST program contains at least one layer (32 layers maximum). Each layer can use a keymap of samples or a synth oscillator as sound sources. The sound sources in each layer can be individually processed with an algorithm containing DSP functions. Each Layer can also be individually processed by a layer insert FX Chain. All Layers can be processed a common insert FX Chain and two common Aux FX Chains. Each VAST layer uses one of the 256 voices of the PC4 (two voices for stereo samples). Each FM layer uses 4 voices. 3-2

Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone Program Edit Mode Program Mode Editing VAST Programs VAST Program Structure Up to 16 keyboard

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 MULTI PROGRAM ALGORITHM KEYMAP SAMPLE ROOTS 8 16 keyboard zones— zones—each with each with independent independent program, program, MIDI channel, MIDI channel, and and control assignments control assignments Selected for performance Selected for performance and editing in Program and editing in Program mode; up to 32 layers per mode; up to 32 layers per program program A keymap processed A keymap processed through an algorithm, through an algorithm, modulated by control modulated by control sources sources Up to 128 sample Up to 128 sample roots, assigned to play roots, assigned to play at programmable key at programmable key and velocity ranges and velocity ranges Individual digital sound recordings stored in Individual digital sound ROM; stereo samples recordings stored in use two voices of ROM; stereo samples polyphony use two voices of polyphony

Figure 6-1 VAST Program Structure Note: When using a KVA oscillator, the sound source for that layer is generated at the algorithm stage. See Editing VAST Programs With KVA Oscillators on page 3-74 for more details. 3-3 6-5 Program Edit Mode Navigation Navigation Press the soft buttons at the bottom of the screen to navigate to each page, or to perform the labeled function. Use the cursor buttons to select each parameter, and the PREVIOUS/NEXT buttons, Alpha Wheel, or CATEGORY buttons to change each value. When certain parameters are selected, additional editor pages or functions can be accessed by pressing the EDIT button. The EDIT button lights up when the EDIT button can be used. Soft Buttons in the Program Editor Press the soft buttons at the bottom of the screen to navigate to each page, or to perform the labeled function. Press the MORE soft buttons to view more sets of soft buttons. See the rest of this chapter for details on each of the Program Edit Mode pages. See “The Soft Button Functions” on page 3-71 for details on soft button functions in Program Edit Mode pages. Layers Use the CHANNEL/LAYER/ZONE/TRACK buttons to change the current Layer. Most parameters apply only to the currently selected Layer, which will be shown in the top right corner of the display. Parameters on the PARAMS Page, FX Page, COMMON Page and ARP Page apply to all Layers. The EDIT Button in the Program Editor When certain parameters are selected, additional editor pages or functions can be accessed by pressing the EDIT button. The EDIT button lights up when the EDIT button can be used. Sub Editors Press the EDIT button to enter sub editors when the following fields are selected: • Parameters on the PARAMS page • FX Chains on the FX or LYR FX pages • Intonation Maps on the COMMON page • Keymaps on the KEYMAP page • Samples within the Keymap editor 3-4 Program Edit Mode Navigation • Patterns on the ARP page (Shift, Velocity, and Duration) • Algorithms on the ALG page Jump When a Program Edit source field is selected and assigned to a physical controller or CC number, press the EDIT button to jump to the associated parameter on the Parameters Page. When a Program Edit source field is selected and assigned to an envelope, LFO, ASR or FUN, press the EDIT button to jump to an associated field on the envelope or LFO+ pages. Assign Assign is the secondary function of the ENTER button. You can use the Assign function to quickly select parameters or set values for parameters by holding the ENTER button while moving PC4 controllers (Knobs, Sliders, Buttons, Keys, Wheels, and Pedals). Parameters that can use the Assign function are indicated by showing the Assign symbol in the top right corner of the display when selected. Select an Assigned Parameter When the PARAMS Page Parameter column is selected, hold the ENTER button and move a controller to select the assigned parameter (if a parameter is assigned to that controller). This is an easy way to check if a controller is unused, or is already being used by a parameter. Assign a Physical Controller When the PARAMS Page Control column or a Program Edit source field is selected, hold the ENTER button and move a physical controller to assign the moved controller to the selected parameter or source field. Assign a Control Source When a Program Edit source field is selected, hold the ENTER button and press one of the keyboard keys. Each of the 88 keys will select one of the available control sources. Select a Key Range When the LAYER Page Low Key or High Key fields are selected, hold the ENTER button and press a keyboard key to set the Low Key or High Key. 3-5 Program Edit Mode The PARAMS Page The PARAMS Page The PARAMS page shows all Program and FX parameters for the current program that have been assigned to be controlled by the PC4’s physical controllers, or by MIDI CCs from an external MIDI device. Use the PARAMS page to change controller and MIDI CC assignments, set an initial MIDI value for each controller assignment, and edit the name displayed for each controller assignment. When controller or MIDI assignments are made on other Program or FX Edit pages, or if an FX Chain is selected which contains controller assignments, these parameters are automatically added to the Parameters page. Parameter Column The Parameter column shows all Program and FX parameters for the current program that have been assigned to be controlled by the PC4’s physical controllers, or by MIDI CCs from an external MIDI device. Effect Chain parameters are named with prefixes based on their effect type: “INS” for parameters from Insert effects, “LFX” for parameters from layer effects, and “AUX1” or “AUX2” for parameters from Aux effects. To quickly find a parameter that is already assigned to a controller, select the parameter column, hold the ENTER button and move a controller to select the assigned parameter. 3-6 Program Edit Mode The PARAMS Page Control Column The Control column determines which physical controller (or external MIDI CC number) will control the parameter in the selected row. To quickly assign one of the PC4’s physical controllers to a parameter, select the control column in the row of the desired parameter, hold the ENTER button and move the desired controller. Alternatively, you can use the Alpha Wheel or the Previous/Next buttons to select a controller from the list, or type in the controller’s MIDI number followed by the ENTER button. See below for a list of PC4 physical controllers and their associated MIDI numbers. If you want to disable the controller for a parameter, you can select a value of None by scrolling to the bottom of the controller list (using the Alpha Wheel or the Previous/Next buttons), or type -1 followed by the ENTER button. To choose an external MIDI CC number as a control source, you can enter the number of the controller followed by the ENTER button, or use the Alpha Wheel or the Previous/Next buttons. The PC4’s physical controllers each use one of the available MIDI CC numbers, so you must choose one of the other available CC numbers when using an external MIDI control source or else the parameter will also be controlled by a PC4 physical controller. MIDI CC numbers associated with the PC4’s physical controllers are shown in the list below. PC4 Physical Controller MIDI CC Numbers Mod Wheel (MIDI CC 1) Slider 4 (MIDI CC 23) Knob 3 (MIDI CC 72) Knob 8 (MIDI CC 3) Slider 5 (MIDI CC 24) Knob 2 (MIDI CC 73) CC Pedal 2 (MIDI CC 4) Slider 6 (MIDI CC 25) Knob 4 (MIDI CC 79) Knob 9 (MIDI CC 9) Slider 7 (MIDI CC 26) Switch 1 (MIDI CC 80) CC Pedal 1 (MIDI CC 11) Slider 8 (MIDI CC 27) Switch 2 (MIDI CC 81) Slider 1 (MIDI CC 12) Slider 9 (MIDI CC 28) Switch 3 (MIDI CC 82) Slider 2 (MIDI CC 13) Variation Button (MIDI CC 29) Switch 4 (MIDI CC 83) Knob 5 (MIDI CC 14) Sw. Pedal 1a (MIDI CC 64) Switch 5 (MIDI CC 85) Knob 6 (MIDI CC 17) Sw. Pedal 1b (MIDI CC 66) Switch 6 (MIDI CC 86) Knob 7 (MIDI CC 18) Sw. Pedal 2a (MIDI CC 66) Switch 7 (MIDI CC 87) Ribbon Section 1 (MIDI CC 21) Sw. Pedal 2b (MIDI CC 67) Switch 8 (MIDI CC 89) Slider 3 (MIDI CC 22) Knob 1 (MIDI CC 71) Switch 9 (MIDI CC 90) 3-7 Program Edit Mode The PARAMS Page Value Column To change the value of a parameter, use the cursor button to highlight the right column. In the value column, use the Alpha Wheel or the Previous/Next buttons to enter a MIDI value from 0-127, or a value of None by scrolling below 0. You can also use the keypad function of the Category buttons followed by the ENTER button to enter a MIDI value. If you set a MIDI Value to None by scrolling below 0, the MIDI value will be 0 until you change the value with an assigned controller (though None will still be displayed). A value of None can also be selected by using the keypad to type -1, followed by the ENTER button. Important Note: Values of “None” For factory programs, standard parameters like Expression (program volume), Sustain, and Sostenuto are always set to None by default. If you change one of these values, either on the PARAMS page in the Program Editor, or with a physical controller from Program Mode (or the Program Editor,) the same value will be used for any other program you select, if you select another program that uses a value of None for the same parameter. These values remain set even if you don’t save the program. This can be useful, for example, when using an expression pedal to control program volume. By default, all factory programs have their Expression parameter set to a value of None, and Expression (program volume) by default can be controlled by an expression pedal plugged into the CC 1 Pedal jack. With an expression pedal plugged into the CC 1 Pedal jack, you can control the volume of any factory program, but when you select another factory program, it will have the same volume that you set with the expression pedal in the last program. This way, the volume of your programs will stay consistent, and can always be changed by the expression pedal. If you want a program to have a default volume, you must set a Value other than None for the Expression parameter. For all parameters with a Value of None, any values set with a physical control will not be saved when saving the program. You must set the Value column for that parameter to something other than None in order to set and save a value. These values will remain set until changed with a controller, or until a program is loaded on the current MIDI channel that does not have a value of None for these parameters. 3-8 Program Edit Mode The PARAMS Page Parameter Edit Select a Parameter and press the EDIT button to view the Parameter Edit page. The Parameter Edit page allows you to view the Parameter’s Destination, Entry Value, Control, and Text name. The parameter name can be edited, see below for details. Press the BACK soft button to return to the PARAMS page, or press the DELETE soft button to delete the current Parameter. Destination A parameter’s Destination is automatically set when the Parameter is created, and can not be changed. A PARAMS page Parameter will control any Program Edit or FX Edit parameter which has it’s source field set to the same destination number. For details see “PARAMS Page Parameter Destination” on page 3-12. Entry Value and Control These parameters are equivalent to the PARAMS page Value column and Control column. Text To change the Parameter’s name, use the Navigation buttons to select the Text field, then press the EDIT button to enter the Parameter Name page, where you can rename the Parameter. Use the Navigation buttons and soft buttons to change the Parameter name. Press OK to save the new parameter name, or CANCEL to return to the previous page. 3-9 Program Edit Mode The PARAMS Page Adding Parameters to the PARAMS Page To add parameters to the PARAMS page, a controller assignment must be made using a source field on one of the Program Edit or FX Edit pages. Controllable parameters each have a source field. All source fields are listed below: VAST Program Source Fields The FX Page on page 3-13 • Mod The Layer FX (LYR FX) Page on page 3-16 • Aux1 Mod, Aux2 Mod The KEYMAP Page on page 3-40 • Alt Control The LAYER Page on page 3-45 • Enable The DSP Modulation (DSP MOD) Page on page 3-56 • Source 1, Source 2, Depth Ctl The OUTPUT Page on page 3-58 • Mod Envelope Control on page 3-63 • Source The LFO+ Page on page 3-67 • RateCt, Trigger, Input a, Input b FM Operator Page on page 3-86 • Level Source 1, Level Source 2, Freq Source 1, Freq Source 2 FM Amp + Output Page on page 3-97 • Source 1, Source 2, Crossfade FM Alt Input Page on page 3-99 • Source 1, Source 2 KB3 Program Source Fields KB3 Editor: The PITCH Page on page 3-114 • Source 1, Source 2 3-10 Program Edit Mode The PARAMS Page KB3 Editor: The AMP Page on page 3-114 • Source 1, Source 2 KB3 Editor: The LFO+, ARP and CC SEQ Pages on page 3-119 • RateCt, Trigger, Input a, Input b Chain Edit Source Fields The MOD Pages on page 4-3 • Source FXLFO+ page on page 4-5 • RateCt, Trigger, Input a, Input b Adding Physical Controllers To assign a PC4 physical controller, select the source field for the parameter, hold the ENTER button and move the controller. Adding MIDI CC Numbers To assign a CC number to a source field, enter a number from 1-31 or 64-95 with the alphanumeric pad, then press Enter. A CC number for an external controller can also be set by selecting the source field for the parameter, holding the ENTER button, and sending a CC value from the external MIDI controller. Note: The PC4’s physical controllers each use one of the available MIDI CC numbers, so you must choose one of the other available CC numbers when using an external MIDI control source or else the parameter will also be controlled by a PC4 physical controller. See the PC4 Physical Controller MIDI CC Numbers on page 3-7 for a list of CC numbers used by the PC4’s physical controllers. Some MIDI CCs are also hard wired to control certain program parameters or functions such as MIDI 5 (Portamento Time), MIDI 7 (Program Volume), MIDI 10 (Pan), MIDI 11 (Expression/Program Volume), MIDI 64 (Sustain), MIDI 66 (Sostenuto), so if you use one of these numbers the CC will always perform the hard wired function, in addition to any other assignment you make. 3-11 Program Edit Mode The PARAMS Page Program Edit Source Names When assigning a physical controller or CC number to a Program Edit source field, the source field will show a default MIDI CC number (the destination), followed by the assigned physical controller name or MIDI CC number (the control name). For example assigning Slider 1 shows “12 Slider 1”, and assigning MIDI CC 5 shows “5 MIDI 5”). Note: If a parameter assignment is changed on the PARAMS page using the Control column, the Program Edit source field will update the control name, while maintaining the same destination number. For example, in a clear Program assign the DSP MOD page Pitch Source 1 to “12 Slider 1”. A “Pitch” parameter will appear on the Parameters page, with its Control set to Slider 1. On the PARAMS page, change Pitch Control column to Slider 2. The DSP MOD page Pitch Source 1 field will now show “12 Slider 2”. PARAMS Page Parameter Destination On the PARAMS page, press the EDIT button to see a Parameter’s Destination field. A parameter’s Destination is automatically set when the Parameter is created, and can not be changed. A PARAMS page Parameter will control any Program Edit or FX Edit parameter which has it’s source field set to the same destination number. When an assigned Program Edit source field is selected, you can jump to selecting the controlling PARAMS page parameter by pressing the EDIT button. PARAMS Page Parameter Shared Assignments When assigning a physical controller or CC number to a source field, a Parameter is automatically added to the PARAMS Page with the name of the first assigned Program Edit parameter. If you assign a source field to a destination number that is already used by a parameter on the PARAMS page, a new parameter will not be added to the PARAMS page. The new assignment will share the existing Parameter on the PARAMS page (Name, Control assignment and initial Value). The existing Parameter will control multiple assignments, but the existing Parameter’s name will not change to reflect this. You can edit the Parameter name by selecting the Parameter and pressing the EDIT button to access the parameter edit page. See Parameter Edit on page 3-9 for details. 3-12 Program Edit Mode The FX Page The FX Page Use the FX page to apply audio effects to a Program. You can select an Insert effects Chain and 2 Aux effects Chains, all of which apply to all layers in the Program (unless Layer FX are used, see below for details). In Program Mode, Programs on all MIDI channels share the Aux chains of the Program on the currently selected MIDI channel. The PC4’s Chains contain a variety of effects. Each Chain displays icons representing the type of effects contained in the Chain, as well as the order of effects in the Chain (signal flows from left to right). The PC4’s Chains include different types of reverb, chorus, delay, flanger, phaser, tremolo, panner, rotary, distortion, EQ, compression, filter, envelope following filter, frequency stimulator, ring modulator, frequency offset, pitch LFO, and stereoizer. The selected Chain can be edited by pressing the EDIT button. See Ch. 4 The Effects Chain Editor for details. DSP Resources and DSP Units A Program can have up to 8 Insert Chains (any combination of common and layer specific inserts) and 2 Aux Chains. The PC4 has 32 “units” of effects resources that can be used to load effects chains. Each FX chain requires a certain number of FX units in order to load, depending on its complexity. The top line of the display shows a fraction with the number of units used by the selected channel, over the total number of units used. When attempting to use more than 32 units of FX resources at once, some FX Chains will not be loaded. 3-13 Program Edit Mode The FX Page When sustaining notes while switching between 2 Programs, FX resources from the first Program may be “stolen” in order to load effects from the second Program. Because of this, you may hear a change in the sound of the first Program when switching to the second Program. If both Programs each use 14 DSP Units or less, then in most cases FX resources will not be stolen from the first Program, and you should not hear a change in the sound of the first Program. Insert Choose an effects Chain that will be applied to the current program. If you only need to use one Chain at a time on one MIDI channel, Insert effects may be all you need. If you plan to use multiple programs on different MIDI channels, it is best to use both Insert and Aux effects (see Aux below). Aux effects have the advantage of being available to all programs on each MIDI channel at the same time. Aux 1, Aux 2 Choose an effects Chain for each of the two auxiliary audio buses. An aux bus is an audio channel with a shared effects Chain that can be used by programs on any of the 16 MIDI channels. The aux effect is useful when you want to use the same type of effect for multiple channels (typically used for Reverb or Delay). You apply an aux effect to the program on a MIDI channel by “sending” the audio from that channel to an aux bus. Every channel is connected to the aux buses, but the aux buses don’t receive the signal until you turn up the aux “send” level for that channel, which controls a channel’s input level to the aux bus. On each MIDI channel you can control the aux send level for that channel’s program, in turn controlling how loudly you can hear the aux effect applied to that channel’s program. The aux send level is set by the Aux 1 and Aux 2 Send parameters on the FX page. Many Chains also have an additional Aux send, Wet/Dry, or Amount parameter that will appear on the PARAMS page. For Reverb and Delay Chains, send parameters are often assigned by default to Slider 9 or Slider 8 respectively. Output The Output parameter specifies the rear panel analog output pair to which the selected aux bus is routed. Setting the Output to A routes the signal of the selected bus to output pair A. Setting the Output to B routes the signal of the selected bus to output pair B. This is useful if you want to control the processed Aux signal with an external mixer or process the signal with additional external effects. 3-14 Program Edit Mode The FX Page Send The Aux Send parameters determine how much of the Program’s signal is sent to each Aux FX Chain. Depending on the Type parameter, the send values are set either in dB or wet/dry percent. Pre/Post The Aux Pre/Post parameters determine whether or not the output of the Insert chain is sent to each Aux Chain (the “pre” or “post” insert signal). When set to Pre, the output of the Insert chain is not sent to the Aux Chain. When set to Post, the output of the Insert chain is sent to the Aux Chain. Type The Type parameter determines the values used for each Send parameter (dB or percent), and whether or not each send will work as a wet/dry control. When Type is set to dB, the Aux send level is set in dB and works like a traditional send on an audio mixing board. As you turn up the Aux send, the Aux Chain’s processed wet signal is layered over the program’s unprocessed dry signal. Setting Type to dB is useful for setting a precise send value. The level of signal sent to the Chain is set in dB, the higher the value the more processed signal you will hear. When Type is set to %, the Aux send level is set in % and works as a dry/wet mix. As you turn up the Aux send, the Aux Chain’s processed wet signal is turned up and begins to replace the program’s unprocessed dry signal, which is turned down. For example, with an Aux send set to 50% you hear an equal amount of unprocessed (dry) and processed (wet) signal. With an Aux send set to 100% you hear only the processed (wet) signal and none of the original unprocessed (dry) signal. Typically it’s best to set Type to % when a continuous controller (like a Slider) is assigned to the Mod parameter, because it will give the controller more usable range then when set to dB. Mod Use each Mod parameter to select a physical controller or other control source to adjust each Aux Send value. The selected Mod control source will adjust the Send level using the range set by the Send parameter. 3-15 Program Edit Mode The Layer FX (LYR FX) Page The Layer FX (LYR FX) Page Use the Layer FX page to apply audio effects to individual layers of a Program. Layer FX Mode Select a Layer FX Mode to determine how effects will be applied to each layer. See below for details on each mode: Use Program FX With Use Program FX selected, the current layer will use the effects configured on the FX page. See The FX Page above for more information on program FX. Layer-Specific FX With Layer-Specific FX selected, you can configure the effects for the current layer. A Program can have up to 8 Insert Chains (any combination of common and layer specific inserts). The Layer specific parameters are the same as on the FX page, except they apply only to the current layer, and some of the Aux parameters are not available (the settings from the FX page are used for the Aux 1 and Aux 2 Chain and Output parameters). See The FX Page above for more information on these parameters. In this mode, the Aux parameters on this page apply to the Aux Chains selected on the FX page. Use Another Layer’s FX With Use Another Layer’s FX selected, you can put the current layer through the Insert Chain and Aux effects settings of another layer. Use the “Use FX From Layer” parameter to select the layer whose effects you wish to use. 3-16 Program Edit Mode The COMMON Page The COMMON Page The Common Page contains parameters that effect all layers of the current Program. BendRange Up & BendRange Down Use these parameters to define how much the pitch will change when you move the Pitch Wheel. Pitch values are set in cents, where 100 cents = 1 half-step (1 semitone). For both Bend parameters, positive values will cause the pitch to bend up, while negative values will cause the pitch to bend down. Large positive values can cause samples to bend to their maximum upward pitch before the Pitch Wheel is fully up (or down). This will not happen when bending the pitch down. Output Gain Use the Output Gain parameter to cut or boost the final gain stage of the post-FX program signal. This is useful for adjusting the overall volume of a program. Category This parameter sets the category that the program will be grouped into when you press one of the Category buttons from the Program mode main page. Intonation Map The Intonation Map parameter allows you to set a different intonation map for each program. You can edit the currently selected map and save it as a user map by pressing the EDIT button. 3-17 Program Edit Mode The COMMON Page The Intonation Map parameter works just like the Global mode Intonation Map parameter, except the Intonation Map parameter on the Program Common page only applies to the current program. (The Global mode Intonation Map parameter applies to all programs.) See Editing Intonation Maps on page 9-13 for more details on intonation maps. Intonation Key The Intonation Key parameter allows you to set a different Intonation Key for each program. The Intonation Key parameter works just like the Global mode Int Key parameter, except the Intonation Key parameter on the Program Common page only applies to the current program. (The Global Mode Int Key parameter applies to all programs.) See Editing Intonation Maps on page 9-13 for more details on intonation keys. Tuning Map Program Tuning Maps can be selected and edited for each Program, to set tuning offsets for each key in cents. (Tuning Map offsets are cumulative with any tuning applied in the keymap editor, sample editor, and elsewhere). You can edit the currently selected map and save it as a user map by pressing the EDIT button. Program Tuning Maps are primarily used to emulate stretched tuning techniques, which are commonly used for acoustic pianos and other acoustic keyboard instruments. Stretched tunings generally tune notes in the lowest octave increasingly flat, and notes in the highest octave increasingly sharp. For solo piano performances, stretched tunings can make the overtones and harmonics of notes in these lowest and highest octaves sound more in tune with notes in the middle octaves. Three stretched tuning maps are included, Railsback (a common stretched tuning), Grand Eight Ft (based on a grand piano), and Tines EPiano (based on a common electric piano service manual). 3-18 Program Edit Mode The COMMON Page Many of the PC4’s factory piano samples and keymaps use equal temperament (non stretched) tuning by default. Piano keymaps which use equal temperament are named ending with EQT. Factory piano programs which use EQT keymaps and have one of the included stretched Tuning Maps selected will use a stretched tuning. Factory piano programs which use EQT keymaps and have Tuning Map set to 0 None will use an equal temperament tuning. For samples and keymaps which do not use equal temperament tuning, it is possible to edit a user Tuning Map in order to apply equal temperament tuning. When layering piano with other instruments using equal temperament (non-stretched) tunings, using an equal temperament piano tuning may be preferable so that notes in the lowest and highest octaves sound more in tune with other instruments which use equal temperament tuning. In this case, if a piano program uses equal temperament samples and keymaps, set the Tuning Map to 0 None to use equal temperament tuning. Monophonic When the Monophonic parameter is set to “Off”, the current edited program is polyphonic—it can play multiple notes at a time. When the Monophonic parameter is set to “On”, the program will play only one note at a time, and the Legato parameter and the four Portamento parameters will appear on the Program Common page. The Monophonic, Legato and Portamento parameters are not available for KB3 programs. Legato When the Monophonic parameter is set to “On”, the Legato parameter appears. The Legato parameter is useful for emulating legato techniques of various acoustic instruments. When the Legato parameter is set to “On”, a played note will trigger a new amplitude envelope only if no other notes in the program are being held. Notes played while other notes are being held will use the previously triggered amplitude envelope of the first note that was played. Portamento When the Monophonic parameter is set to “On”, the Portamento parameter appears. When the Portamento parameter is set to “On”, notes played in a monophonic Program can glide from the pitch of the previously played note to the pitch of the currently played note. Portamento is often used in synthesizer lead sounds, or to mimic acoustic instruments like violin and bass, where a pitch glide is achieved by sliding a finger along a vibrating string. 3-19 Program Edit Mode The COMMON Page See Portamento Rate (below) to set the Portamento glide speed, and Attack Portamento (below) to set the way that Portamento responds to played notes. See the Mono Sample XFade parameter (below) to improve the sound of Portamento in programs that use multiple samples. Portamento Rate When the Portamento parameter is set to “On”, the Portamento Rate parameter appears. The Portamento Rate parameter determines how fast a note glides from the pitch of one note to the pitch of the next played note. The value selected for this parameter determines how many seconds a note takes to glide one semitone (half-step) toward the pitch of the next played note. For example, at a setting of 12 keys/second the pitch would glide an octave every second. Select a higher value for a faster pitch glide, or a lower value for a slower pitch glide. The list of values is nonlinear; that is, the increments get larger as you scroll to higher values. Portamento Attk This parameter toggles between two types of portamento. When set to On, the pitch always glides to each new note played from the pitch of the last note played. When set to Off, the pitch glides to each new note played only if the last note played is still being held. This is useful when you want only some notes to use portamento. Mono Sample XFade When applying portamento to programs that use multiple samples (Acoustic Guitar, for example), the PC4 will play more than one sample root as the pitch glides from the starting pitch to the ending pitch. This may cause a small click at each sample root transition. You can eliminate clicks by setting the Mono Sample XFade parameter to On. When the Mono Sample XFade parameter is set to On, the PC4 performs a crossfade at each sample root transition to eliminate clicks. Out Pan Use the Out Pan parameter to adjust the left/right balance of the entire Program output signal (post-FX). Negative values pan the audio signal to the left channel, positive values to the right, and a value of zero pans to the center. 3-20 Program Edit Mode The COMMON Page Out Pan Mode When the Out Pan Mode is set to Fixed, the Out Pan position remains as defined with the Out Pan parameter, ignoring MIDI pan messages. When the Out Pan Mode is set to +MIDI, MIDI pan messages (MIDI 10) will shift the sound to the left or right of the Pan parameter setting. Message values below 64 shift it left, while those above 64 shift it right. Globals This parameter affects the control sources LFO2, ASR2, FUN2 and FUN4. When the Globals parameter is set to Off, these control sources are local; they affect each note individually in the layers that use them as a control source. They begin operating for each note each time a note in that layer is triggered, and are not affected by other notes. When the Globals parameter is set to On, these control sources become global, which means they affect every note in every layer of the current program, they’re not specific to any one layer. When these control sources are global, they begin operating as soon as the program is selected. When Globals are on, LFO2, ASR2, and FUNs 2 and 4 will appear on the LFO+ page preceded by the letter G to indicate that they’re global. Local control sources are useful for affecting parameters independently for each note in a layer. Local control sources have the advantage of having a separate copy re-triggered for each note. Their disadvantage is that their parameters must be set separately for each layer if you wish to affect multiple layers. Global control sources are useful for affecting many parameters in a program uniformly, because they share the same settings on all layers. Their disadvantage is that a separate copy in not re-triggered for each note. You’ll use global control sources when you want to affect all notes in a program uniformly, and local control sources when you want to affect each note independently. For example, a global LFO is useful for controlling amplitude to create a tremolo effect, if you want the effect applied uniformly to all the notes you play. A local ASR is useful for controlling the frequency of a filter sweep, if you want the filter sweep to be independent for each note. Demo Song The Demo Song parameter allows you to choose the demo song for the current program. The demo song is a short, pre‐programmed song that gives you a demonstration of the program in a musical context. You can play a program’s demo song in Program mode by simultaneously pressing the 0/MISC and ENTER buttons. 3-21 Program Edit Mode The Arpeggiator (ARP) Page The Arpeggiator (ARP) Page Use the Arp page to adjust settings for the Program’s Arpeggiator. The Arpeggiator takes note input from the keyboard (or via MIDI) and outputs a rhythmic and/or melodic pattern of MIDI notes. The Arpeggiator can affect both the internal programs and external MIDI instruments. The Arpeggiator processes notes by playing them repeatedly, and/or transposing them up and down the keyboard. You have control over note output velocity, order, duration, transposition, and more. In Multi Mode, you can assign controllers to control several arpeggiator parameters in real time (see Multi Controller destinations 147, 150-160 and 170-178 in The Controller Destination List on page 7-20). You can also select and edit patterns for note shifting, velocity shifting, and duration, either as independent patterns, or as a combination of all three in Step Sequencer mode. The Arpeggiator also has several different “latch” settings, which allows the arpeggiator to respond to played notes in different ways, such as continuing to play after you have released the keys. The SAVE ARP Soft Button If you have adjusted any Arpeggiator settings, you have the option of saving a new Arp Preset to a User location, where it will be available to use with other Programs and Multis. All settings on the ARP page are saved as part of the arp preset, except for the State and KeyRange parameters, which are stored with the Program/Multi. If you don’t save an arp preset, the arp settings will still be saved with the current Program or Multi. Press the SAVE ARP soft button to initiate a save. You will have the option to select the ID number and name for your Arp Preset. 3-22 Program Edit Mode The Arpeggiator (ARP) Page Arpeggiator Common Parameters The following common parameters are used by the Arpeggiator in both Classic and Step Sequencer mode. Arp Preset Use the Arp Preset parameter to recall factory or user created Arpeggiator settings. An Arp Preset contains settings for all of the parameters on the ARP page (except for the State and KeyRange parameters, which are stored with the Program/Multi). Scrolling through the Arp Presets is an easy way to discover the different possibilities of the arpeggiator, or to find a preset similar to what you want and continue to edit it from there. You can save your current settings as an Arp Preset by pressing the SAVE ARP soft button. If you select a different Arp Preset before saving your current Arpeggiator settings, the current Arpeggiator settings will be replaced by the settings from the preset without showing a warning. Be sure to save your settings as an Arp Preset if you want to be able to recall them after making additional changes. Even if you don’t save the current Arpeggiator settings as an Arp Preset, the most recent settings will always be saved with the Program or Multi when the Program or Multi is saved. Changing any of the Arp parameters will change the Preset to “0 Edited Arp”, to indicate that the previous preset settings are no longer being used. State Use the State parameter to turn the Arpeggiator On or Off. This corresponds to the ARP button in the front panel ARPEGGIATOR section. In a Multi, this parameter can also be controlled using Controller destination 147 (Arp On/Off). Arp Mode The two Arpeggiator modes, Classic and Step Sequencer, offer different means of shaping and editing Arpeggiator patterns. Depending upon this mode, the ARP page will provide access to different options and editable patterns. In Classic mode, the ARP page will offer algorithmic options, as well as independent note Shift, Velocity and Duration patterns. These patterns are editable. See Arpeggiator Classic Mode Parameters on page 3-27 for details on Classic mode parameters. In Step Sequencer mode, you can edit sequences step-by-step, specifying Note, Velocity, Duration and Beat for each step in a sequence. See Arpeggiator Step Sequencer Mode Parameters on page 3-34 for details on Step Sequencer mode parameters. Arp Mode can also be set to Off. In Multi Mode, set the Arp Mode to Off for any Zones which you don’t want to control with the ARP and LATCH buttons. 3-23 Program Edit Mode The Arpeggiator (ARP) Page Tempo Use the Tempo parameter to set the arpeggiator tempo in beats-per-minute. This parameter also sets the tempo for tempo synced effects and LFOs. Use the Keypad, Alpha Wheel, or Previous/Next buttons to set a tempo that will be saved with the program. You can also set the tempo to System by scrolling below 20 BPM, or typing -1 followed by the ENTER button. When Tempo is set to System, the arpeggiator will use the system tempo. System tempo is useful when you wish to set a tempo that will be used by many programs. Programs set to System are not saved with a set tempo, and will always use the global system tempo. To set the system Tempo, use the TEMPO section of the front panel. Press the TAP button a few times at the desired rate, or use the TEMPO knob. For details on system tempo, see TEMPO on page 9-30. In Multi Edit Mode, the arp Tempo parameter is not shown, and the arpeggiator tempo is determined by the Tempo parameter on the Common page. Latch The Latch parameter allows you to control how and when notes played on the keyboard (or via external MIDI) will be arpeggiated. For example, some latch settings allow notes to continue arpeggiating after keys have been released (these are called latched notes), and some settings only arpeggiate certain notes. Keep in mind, notes played outside of the Arp KeyRange are never latched or arpeggiated. Some Latch settings require using the Latch switch. The Latch switch can be controlled by the LATCH button in the front panel ARPEGGIATOR section, or by a switch pedal by setting one of the SW Override parameters to Arp Latch on the Global Mode Main 2 page (see Switch Pedal Overrides on page 9-14). In Multi Mode, you can also control the Latch switch by assigning a switch to destination 157 (Latch Sustain) or 158 (Latch2 Sost) (values 0-63 = off, 64-127 = on). Each of the Latch settings are described below. Keys: If the Latch switch is turned off, notes are arpeggiated only when keys are held. As you hold different notes, they get added to the arpeggiation, and as you release notes, they get taken out. When Latch is set to Keys, the LATCH button in the front panel ARPEGGIATOR section can be used to latch played notes so that they will arpeggiate even after they are released. In Program Edit Mode, when the Keys setting is selected, the Latch Type parameter appears. The Latch Type parameter determines the behavior of the LATCH button in the front panel ARPEGGIATOR section. When the Latch Type parameter is set to Latch Sustain, if the Latch switch is turned on, any played notes will become latched. When the Latch Type parameter is set to Latch2 Sost, any played notes will become latched, only when the Latch switch is turned on while notes are held. Latched notes will arpeggiate until the Latch switch is turned off. Note: In Multi Edit Mode, when the Keys setting is selected, the Latch Type parameter does 3-24 Program Edit Mode The Arpeggiator (ARP) Page not appear. In Multi Edit Mode, the behavior of the LATCH button in the front panel ARPEGGIATOR section is determined per Zone on the Controls page of each Zone. For details see “Switch Controllers” on page 7-13. Overplay: Notes are arpeggiated only when the Latch switch is turned on while notes are held. Overplay latches any keys that are being held when the Latch switch is turned on. Latched keys continue arpeggiating after they are released until the Latch switch is turned off. Any notes that you play after the Latch switch is turned on do not get arpeggiated. Arpeg: Notes are arpeggiated only when the Latch switch is turned on while notes are held. Arpeg latches any keys that are being held when the Latch switch is turned on. Latched keys continue arpeggiating after they are released until the Latch switch is turned off. Any notes that you play after the Latch switch has been turned on become part of the arpeggiation, and they drop out of the arpeggiation as soon as you release them. Add: Notes are arpeggiated only when the Latch switch is turned on while notes are held. Add latches any keys that are being held when the Latch switch is turned on, and also latches any notes played after this. Latched keys continue arpeggiating after they are released until the Latch switch is turned off. Auto: Every note you play is automatically latched, and the Arpeggiator runs as long as you hold at least one arpeggiated note. As long as you keep holding on at least one note (it doesn’t have to be the same note the whole time), every note you play in the arpeggiation range gets latched. Autohold is similar to Auto. Holding at least one arpeggiated note on and playing other notes latches those notes. Unlike in Auto mode, if you stop holding at least one arpeggiated note on, the arpeggiation continues playing (although you can’t latch any more notes). In this case, if you strike another key within the arpeggiation range, you start a new arpeggiation sequence. Autohold is useful for arpeggiating chords: when you play a chord, it gets latched, and continues arpeggiating after you release the chord. When you play another chord, the previous chord gets unlatched, and the new one gets latched. You can use the front panel ARP button to stop arpeggiation at any time. 1NoteAuto is similar to Autohold, except only the last note played is latched (even if previously played notes are still being held). 1NoteAuto is specifically designed for use with Shift Patterns (see “Shift Pattern” on page 3-27) because Shift Patterns are designed to be played from one note at a time (though you can use 1NoteAuto without a Shift Pattern as well). Using 1NoteAuto ensures that Shift Patterns will sound correct by only allowing one note at a time to trigger the pattern. You can use the ARP button in the front panel ARPEGGIATOR section to stop arpeggiation at any time. 1NoteAutoLow and 1NoteAutoHi are also designed for use with Shift Patterns. They work similarly to 1NoteAuto, except 1NoteAutoLow always latches the lowest note when holding multiple notes, and 1NoteAutoHi always latches the highest note when holding multiple notes. You can also use these latch types without a Shift Pattern if desired. You can use the ARP button in the front panel ARPEGGIATOR section to stop arpeggiation at any time. 3-25 Program Edit Mode The Arpeggiator (ARP) Page Limit Option This parameter determines what the Arpeggiator does when it has shifted the currently arpeggiated notes up (or down) to the value set by the Shift Limit parameter. Stop causes the Arpeggiator to stop when it reaches the shift limit. Reset causes the Arpeggiator to return to its original pitch and repeat the cycle of notes. Unipolar means that after a note reaches the shift limit, the note is shifted in the opposite direction, until it reaches the original pitch, where it reverses direction again. If Shift Amount is set to a positive value, a note will never be shifted below it’s original pitch. If Shift Amount is set to a negative value, a note will never be shifted above it’s original pitch. Bipolar means that after a note reaches the shift limit, the note is shifted in the opposite direction, until it reaches the shift limit in the opposite direction, where it reverses again. FloatRst (float reset) means that when the Arpeggiator reaches the shift limit, it looks at the first note that would exceed the shift limit, and calculates the interval between that note and the shift limit. It then restarts the cycle of latched notes, transposing the entire cycle by the interval it just calculated, then shifting each subsequent cycle by the value of Shift Amount, until it reaches the shift limit again. Here’s a very simple example. Suppose that the only note in the Arpeggiator cycle is C4, Shift Amount is 4 (a third), and Shift Limit is 7 (so notes won’t get shifted above G4). The Arpeggiator plays C4, then E4. The next note should be G#4, but that’s above the shift limit—so the arpeggiator calculates the difference between that G#4 and the shift limit (G4): one semitone. It adds that difference to the original starting note (C4) and plays that note next—C#4. The next note (F4) is within the shift limit, but the next note (A4) isn’t, so it gets translated into D4—and so on. FloatUnip uses the same concept as FloatRst and applies it to Unipolar mode: when the Arpeggiator reaches the shift limit, it calculates the difference between the next note and the limit, and transposes the next cycle of notes down by that interval, then shifts each subsequent cycle down until it reaches the original pitch. FloatBip is similar to FloatUnip, but the downward shift limit isn’t the original pitch, it’s the negative of the Shift Limit value. Key Range (Low Key and High Key) The Arpeggiator processes notes within the range of these parameters. Notes outside the specified range play normally, and do not become part of the arpeggiation sequence. When the Low Key or High Key parameter is selected, you can easily set the value by holding the ENTER button and striking the desired key. Key Range is not saved with each Arp Preset, but instead is saved as part of each program (or Multi Zone). This allows you to try different presets while maintaining the same Key Range. 3-26 Program Edit Mode The Arpeggiator (ARP) Page Arpeggiator Classic Mode Parameters Beats The Beats parameter sets the number of notes per beat. The tempo is based on quarter notes. Therefore, if you set Beats to 1/4, you will get one note per beat of the clock. At 1/16, you will get 4 notes per beat, and so forth. The maximum value is 96 notes per beat (1/384), but at most tempos, divisions smaller than 1/64 will sound pretty much the same. To find a Beats value, multiply the notes you want per beat by 4. For example, 4 notes per beat (16th notes) would be 4*4=16, a Beats value of 1/16. Three notes per beat (8th note triplets) would be 3*4=12, a Beats value of 1/12. Six notes per beat (16th note triplets) would be 6*4=24, a Beats value of 1/24. Shift Mode Use the Shift Mode parameter to set how the arpeggiator will shift the pitch of played notes. The Alg (algorithm) setting will let you create note sequences based upon a fixed Shift Amount. When you select Patt (pattern), the Shift Pattern parameter will appear, allowing you to select a preset or user defined shift pattern. See Shift Pattern below for details. Shift Limit When the Shift Amount parameter is set to a value other than 0, Shift Limit determines how far up or down the Arpeggiator can shift the arpeggiated notes. Try setting Shift Limit to 12 or 24 to create an arpeggio that repeats the same pattern of notes in different octaves. This works well when Shift Amount is set to 12 or when a Shift Pattern is selected. Shift Amount When the Shift Mode is set to Alg, Shift Amount appears. Shift Amount determines how much transposition will occur for each cycle of notes. Try setting Shift Amount to 12, and Shift Limit to 12 or 24 to create an arpeggio that repeats the same pattern of notes in different octaves. Shift Pattern When Shift Mode is set to Pattern, the Shift Pattern parameter appears, which allows you to select a step sequence for arpeggiator note patterns. The note number of each played key is shifted according to a sequenced pattern, thus “Shift Pattern.” There are pre-programed shift patterns including many useful chords, intervals, and rhythms. You can also create a custom user pattern using the pattern editor (see below for details). Shift Pattern steps are played back at the rate set for Beats. Keep in mind that Shift Patterns are affected by every parameter on the ARP page, which can be the cause of unexpected variation, or a way to add interesting variation to a pattern. 3-27 Program Edit Mode The Arpeggiator (ARP) Page Shift Patterns are most easily used and understood when triggered by only one key at a time. One way to prevent triggering from multiple keys is to use one of the Latch types 1NoteAuto, 1NoteAutoLow, or 1NoteAutoHi when using a shift pattern. Triggering shift patterns from one key allows the pre-programed patterns to sound like what you would expect from their names (otherwise the results can be unpredictable). If no other keys are playing, patterns will start over each time a key is pressed (there are some exceptions to this when using Arpeggiator Latch settings other than “Keys,” though a newly triggered pattern will always start at step 1). Editing Shift Patterns You can edit the highlighted pattern by pressing the EDIT button. You can create a new user pattern by editing an existing pattern and saving it to a user ID. In the Shift Pattern editor, pressing STEP- removes the last step in the list, pressing STEP+ inserts a new note step at the end of the list. Use the cursor to move between pattern steps, use the alpha wheel, alphanumeric pad, or plus/minus buttons to enter the note shift amount for each step. You can set a step to a value of “none” by entering -127 and then scrolling down one more step. A step with the value “none” causes the arpeggiator to play nothing for that step, allowing you to create rhythmic patterns by using “none” to leave spaces. Use the CHANNEL/LAYER/ZONE/TRACK buttons to change the direction in which pattern steps are played (indicated by Up, Down, or Flat on the right of the top line). With pattern direction set to Up, the pattern plays starting at step one and moving up through each step towards step 48. With pattern direction set to Down, the pattern starts at step one, but then moves to the last step and continues to move backwards through the steps down towards step 1 in the octave below the first note played. When the pattern direction is set to Up or Down, the pattern will repeat transposed in the next higher or lower octave (limited by the ARP page Shift Limit parameter). Patterns set to Flat play without transposition, in which case the Shift Limit parameter can be used to restrict note range. To save an edited pattern, press the front panel Save button to view the save dialog and select a user ID. You can also rename the pattern if desired. Press DELETE to delete a user pattern from memory. Press Exit to return to the ARP page. 3-28 Program Edit Mode The Arpeggiator (ARP) Page Play Order When the Shift Mode is set to Alg, Play Order appears. Play Order determines the order in which the arpeggiator plays notes. Played causes them to play back in the chronological order in which you played them. Upwards means that notes play in ascending pitch order. Downwards means that notes play in descending pitch order. UpDown causes notes to play from lowest pitch to highest, then from highest pitch to lowest, repeating the cycle until you stop the arpeggiation. The notes at the very top and very bottom only play once. UpDownRep is similar to UpDown, except that the notes at the top and bottom play twice when the Arpeggiator reverses direction. Random plays the notes in random order. Shuffle plays them at random, but keeps track of the notes so that no note repeats until all of the others have played. Walk is a “random walk” order: each successive note is either the next or previous note (in chronological order). For example, suppose you’ve played four notes—G4, B4, D5, and F5—in that order. The first note the Arpeggiator plays is the G4. The second note will be either B4 (the next note chronologically), or F5 (the “previous” note chronologically—that is, the last arpeggiated note). If the second note is B4, the third note will be either D5 or G4. If the second note is F5, the third note will be either G4 or D5. Simultaneous makes the Arpeggiator repeat each note simultaneously. If you play a C and hold it while you play an E and a G, the Arpeggiator will play all three notes at the same time and at the same tempo. Simultaneous also works well with Shift and Limit, allowing you to shift multiple notes simultaneously. Velocity Velocity sets the attack velocity of the played notes. With Velocity set to First, all notes play at the velocity of the first played note. With Velocity set to Played, each note repeats with the same velocity you played it at. With Velocity set to Last, all notes play at the velocity of the most recently played note. With Velocity set to Aftertouch, the velocities are controlled by keyboard pressure: as you hold and push down on any key, the velocities get higher, and as you ease up they get lower. With Velocity set to MIDI109, all notes play with the same velocity. The default MIDI109 velocity is 100. In Multi Mode, you can control the velocity in real-time by assigning a controller to destination 109. 3-29 Program Edit Mode The Arpeggiator (ARP) Page With Velocity set to Fixed, all notes play with the same velocity. The Velocity Fixed field appears, which allows you to set a specific velocity. In Multi Mode, you can control the velocity in real-time by assigning a controller to destination 175 VelFixed. When you select Pattern, the Velocity Patt parameter will appear, allowing you to select a preset or user defined velocity pattern. See Velocity Patt below for details. The Velocity Modes Human1 through Human4 randomly change played note velocity within a range in order to make arpeggiation sound more human like, with each note varying slightly in velocity. The Human settings use the velocity received from the first note played as the center of the randomization range. Each note of the arpeggiator will randomly choose a velocity within the given range. (See the table below for velocity ranges.) The Velocity Modes Chimp1 through Chimp4 function in a similar fashion to the Human settings (see above). Like the Human settings, the Chimp settings randomly change played note velocity within a range, but the Chimp settings have larger randomization ranges. The Chimp settings use the velocity received from the first note played as the center of the randomization range. Each note of the arpeggiator will randomly choose a velocity within the given range. (See the table below for velocity randomization ranges.) Note: For Human and Chimp modes, if the velocity of the first played note is low enough that the selected randomization range could result in a velocity of zero, some notes may have a velocity of zero and therefore produce no sound. Velocity Setting Velocity Randomization Range Human1 ± 3 Human2 ± 6 Human3 ± 10 Human4 ± 15 Chimp1 ± 25 Chimp2 ± 35 Chimp3 ± 50 Chimp4 ± 64 3-30 Program Edit Mode The Arpeggiator (ARP) Page Velocity Modes MissNotes1 through MissNotes9 makes the PC4 randomly miss playing a percentage of inputted notes. See the table below for percentages and their equivalent settings. Each of these settings also randomly changes some of the inputted velocities in a range of ± 5, with the purpose of simulating a more human played sound. Note: Missed Notes are actually output as notes with a velocity of zero. Velocity Setting Approximate % of Notes Missed MissNotes1 % 10 MissNotes2 % 20 MissNotes3 % 30 MissNotes4 % 40 MissNotes5 % 50 MissNotes6 % 60 MissNotes7 % 70 MissNotes8 % 80 MissNotes9 % 90 Velocity Patt When Velocity is set to Pattern, the Velocity Patt parameter appears, which allows you to select a step sequence for arpeggiator velocity patterns. A Velocity Pattern shifts the velocity of each arpeggiated note according to a sequenced pattern. Select a factory pattern, or create a custom user pattern using the pattern editor (see below for details). Velocity Patterns use the velocity received from the first note played as the center position to shift velocities up or down from. Velocity Pattern steps are played back at the rate set for Beats. Rhythms can be created by using velocity values of -127 or “none” to leave rests in the arpeggiation. If no other keys are playing, patterns will start over each time a key is pressed (there are some exceptions to this when using ARP Latch parameters other than “Keys,” though a newly triggered pattern will always start at step 1). When triggering velocity patterns from more than one key at a time, each consecutive step of the pattern shifts the velocity from a different inputted key, the order of which is decided by the Play Order parameter on the ARP page. 3-31 Program Edit Mode The Arpeggiator (ARP) Page Editing Velocity Patterns You can edit the highlighted pattern by pressing the EDIT button. You can create a new user pattern by editing an existing pattern and saving it to a user ID. Each pattern can have up to 48 steps, and each step can shift velocities by ± 127 steps. You can insert a step with a value of “none” by entering -127 and then shifting down one more step. A step with the value “none” causes the arpeggiator to play nothing for that step, allowing you to create rhythmic patterns by using “none” to leave spaces. Pressing STEP removes the last step in the list, pressing STEP+ inserts a new velocity step at the end of the list (the pattern editor remembers the values of removed steps until you save or exit). Use the navigation buttons to move between pattern steps, use the Alpha Wheel, or Previous-/Next+ buttons to enter the velocity shift amount for each step. Note: For patterns with negative velocity values, if the velocity of the first played note is low enough that a pattern step could result in a velocity of zero, some notes may have a velocity of zero and therefore produce no sound. To save an edited pattern, press the front panel Save button to view the save dialog and select a user ID. You can also rename the pattern if desired. Press DELETE to delete a user pattern from memory. Press Exit to return to the ARP page. Duration Mode Use the Duration Mode parameter to set how the arpeggiator will control the duration of played notes. When Duration Mode is set to Fixed, the Duration parameter appears which allows you to set a fixed duration that will be applied to all arpeggiated notes. See the Duration section below for details. When Pattern is selected, the Duration Pattern parameter will appear, allowing you to select a preset or user defined duration pattern. See the Duration Pattern section below for details. 3-32 Program Edit Mode The Arpeggiator (ARP) Page Duration Duration determines how long each arpeggiated note plays based on the current arpeggiator Beats value. 100% means that a note sustains until the next one sounds—very legato. 50% means that the note fills half the space between itself and the next note. The lowest value is 0%—stacattissimo. This parameter has no effect on percussion sounds or other sounds whose duration is fixed. Duration Patt When Duration Mode is set to Pattern, the Duration Patt parameter appears, which allows you to select a step sequence for arpeggiator duration patterns. A Duration Pattern sets the duration of each arpeggiated note according to a sequenced pattern. Duration Pattern steps are played back at the rate set for Beats. The duration of each note is a percentage of the current arpeggiator Beats value. Select a factory pattern, or create a custom user pattern using the pattern editor (see below for details). Editing Duration Patterns You can edit the highlighted pattern by pressing the EDIT button. You can create a new user pattern by editing an existing pattern and saving it to a user ID. Each step can have a duration from 0-100% of the current arpeggiator Beats setting. Each pattern can have up to 48 steps. Pressing STEP- removes the last step in the list, pressing STEP+ inserts a new note step at the end of the list (the pattern editor remembers the values of removed steps until you save or exit). Use the navigation buttons to move between pattern steps, use the Alpha Wheel, alphanumeric pad, or Previous-/Next+ buttons to enter the duration amount for each step. To save an edited pattern, press the front panel Save button to view the save dialog and select a user ID. You can also rename the pattern if desired. Press DELETE to delete a user pattern from memory. Press the Exit button to return to the ARP page. 3-33 Program Edit Mode The Arpeggiator (ARP) Page Arpeggiator Step Sequencer Mode Parameters In Step Sequencer mode, the ARP page will give you the ability to create a unique Arpeggiator pattern step-by-step. Select a parameter using the up/down navigation buttons. To change steps, select the Step# parameter, then press the left or right navigation buttons. Colored oval graphics provide a quick visual interpretation of the Step Sequence: • Color = Note number. • Height = Velocity level. • Width = Duration. • The line under each oval changes length depending on the Beats value for the current step. Number Steps Use the Number Steps parameter to set the number of steps in the current sequence. Step# The Step# parameter shows the number of each step in the sequence, and can be used to navigate between the steps. Note Note values create the shift pattern for the Step sequence. Notes are specified in half-steps from the last latched note (represented as 0). Thus, this series of notes: 0, 4, 7 will play a triad in sequence. Note values can range from -128 to +127, with negative numbers shifting below the latched note. 3-34 Program Edit Mode The CC Sequencer (CC SEQ) Page Veloc (Velocity) Veloc (Velocity) values shift the velocity of each step up or down from the last latched note. Velocity can be shifted -127 to +127 from the original value of the last latched note. Durat (Duration) Durat (Duration) determines how long each step is sustained, based on the Beats value of each step. The duration range is 0-100, which represents a percentage of the Beats value of each step. A setting of 100 will sustain the note for the entire length of the step. Beats Beats sets the length of time between each step in the sequence, which allows you to alter the rhythm of a sequence. Beats is set in fractions of a 4 beat measure, whose rate is set by the Tempo parameter. A step with Beats set to 1/4 will play a quarter note based on the current Tempo setting. To find a Beats value, multiply the notes you want per beat by 4. For example, 4 notes per beat (16th notes) would be 4*4=16, a Beats value of 1/16. Three notes per beat (8th note triplets) would be 3*4=12, a Beats value of 1/12. Six notes per beat (16th note triplets) would be 6*4=24, a Beats value of 1/24. The CC Sequencer (CC SEQ) Page The CC Sequencer allows you to rhythmically modulate up to 4 program parameters (such as filter frequency) based on preset or user patterns. CC is short for continuous controller, which is a type of MIDI message that can be used to control assigned parameters. The CC Sequencer can affect both internal programs and external MIDI instruments. 3-35 Program Edit Mode The CC Sequencer (CC SEQ) Page CC Seq Preset Use the CC Seq Preset parameter to recall factory or user created CC Sequencer settings. A CC Seq Preset contains settings for all of the parameters on the CC SEQ page (except for the State parameter, which is stored with the Program/Multi). Scrolling through the CC Seq Presets is an easy way to discover the different possibilities of the CC Sequencer, or to find a preset similar to what you want and continue to edit it from there. You can save your current settings as a CC Seq Preset by pressing the SAVE SEQ soft button. If you select a different CC Seq Preset before saving your current CC Sequencer settings, the current CC Sequencer settings will be replaced by the settings from the preset without showing a warning. Be sure to save your settings as a CC Seq Preset if you want to be able to recall them after making additional changes. Even if you don’t save the current CC Sequencer settings as a CC Seq Preset, the most recent settings will always be saved with the Program or Multi when the Program or Multi is saved. Changing any of the CC Sequencer parameters will change the Preset to “0 Edited CC Seq”, to indicate that the previous preset settings are no longer being used. State Use the State parameter to turn the CC Sequencer On or Off. When selecting and playing programs in Program Mode, you can control the State parameter by pressing the CC SEQ soft button. In a Multi, this parameter can also be controlled with Controller Destination 148 (CC Seq On/Off). Number Steps Use the Number Steps parameter to set the number of steps in the sequence. Sync When the State parameter is set to On, the Sync parameter determines when the CC sequence will re-start. When the Sync parameter is set to Free Run, the sequence begins playing as soon as the program is selected, and it restarts whenever it reaches the end of the sequence. When the Sync parameter is set to Every Note, the sequence begins playing as soon as the program is selected, and it restarts whenever it reaches the end of the sequence, or whenever a new note is played. When the Sync parameter is set to All Keys Up, the sequence begins playing as soon as the program is selected, and it restarts whenever it reaches the end of the sequence, or whenever all keys have been released. 3-36 Program Edit Mode The CC Sequencer (CC SEQ) Page When the Sync parameter is set to Arp, the sequence begins playing only when the program’s arpeggiator is playing, and it restarts whenever it reaches the end of the sequence. When the Sync parameter is set to Arp with Reset, the sequence begins playing only when the program’s arpeggiator is playing, and it restarts whenever it reaches the end of the sequence, or whenever the program’s arpeggiator restarts its sequence. The AnyOther CCSeq setting only applies to Multi Mode. When the Sync parameter is set to AnyOther CCSeq, the sequence begins playing as soon as the Multi is selected, and it restarts whenever it reaches the end of the sequence, or whenever a CC Sequence for a program in another Zone begins or restarts. Note Value The Note Value parameter sets the number of steps that will be played per beat. The tempo is based on quarter notes. Therefore, if you set Note Value to 1/4, you will get one step per beat of the clock. At 1/16, you will get 4 steps per beat, and so forth. MIDI Dest The MIDI Dest parameter sets the MIDI destination for the CC messages generated by the CC Sequencer. You can send CC messages to a PC4 Program, to the MIDI Out ports, to the USB port, or to any combination of these destinations. By default, CC messages are sent to all possible destinations. When using the PC4 to control or layer with external MIDI instruments, you may wish to send CC messages only to certain destinations. In Program Mode, when the MIDI Dest parameter is set to Zone, the CC messages will be sent to the PC4 Program and to the MIDI and USB ports. In Multi Mode, when the MIDI Dest parameter is set to Zone, the CC messages will be sent to the destination set by the Zone’s Main page Destination parameter. Seq State The CC Sequencer can play 4 simultaneous sequences which can each control a different parameter or CC number. Use the Seq State parameter to turn the selected sequence On or Off. 3-37 Program Edit Mode The CC Sequencer (CC SEQ) Page Sequence The CC Sequencer can play four simultaneous sequences which can each control a different parameter or CC number. Use the Sequence parameter to select one of four sequences to edit. You can also use the SEQ- and SEQ+ soft buttons to select one of the four sequences. Each of the four sequences uses the same settings for the State, Number Steps, Sync, Note Value, and MIDI Dest parameters. All other CC Sequencer parameters can be adjusted independently for each of the four sequences. Scale Use the Scale parameter to change the range of CC values sent by the sequence (in combination with the Scale Mod, Add, and Add Mod parameters). The Scale parameter multiplies the CC values sent from the sequence. CC messages are limited to sending values from 0-127, even if the Scale and Add parameters are set to produce values outside of this range. Each step in a CC Sequence can send CC values 0-127. These values can be multiplied by the percent value of the Scale parameter in order to change the range of CC values. For example: When when Scale is set to 100% the sequence can send CC values 0-127. Scale values 1-99% make the sequence send a smaller range of CC values. When Scale is set to 50% the sequence is limited to sending CC values 0-63. Scale values 101-200% multiply each sequencer step CC value to send higher CC values. For example, when Scale is set to 200% a CC sequencer value of 62 will be sent as 126. Scale Mod Use the Scale Mod parameter to change the range of CC values sent by the sequence using a physical controller (in combination with the Scale, Add, and Add Mod parameters). The selected physical controller will use values 0-127 to multiply the CC values sent from the sequence by 0%-200%. Add Use the Add parameter to change the range of CC values sent by the sequence (in combination with the Scale, Scale Mod, and Add Mod parameters). The Add parameter adds a value to the CC values sent from the sequence. CC messages are limited to sending values from 0-127, even if the Scale and Add parameters are set to produce values outside of this range. 3-38 Program Edit Mode The CC Sequencer (CC SEQ) Page Add Mod Use the Add Mod parameter to change the range of CC values sent by the sequence using a physical controller (in combination with the Scale, Scale Mod, and Add parameters). The selected physical controller will use values 0-127 to add -127 through 127 to the CC values sent from the sequence. MIDI CC Use the MIDI CC field to select a MIDI CC number and/or assigned program parameter to control with a CC Sequence. If a MIDI CC number is assigned to a program parameter, the program parameter name will be shown next to the CC number (for example “12 Filter Freq”). Mode Use the Mode parameter to select a preset or user pattern of CC Sequence steps. When the Mode parameter is set to User, the user sequence is displayed. The CC value of each step is shown as a number as well as represented by the height of a red and purple bar. Use the navigation buttons to select each step and adjust each CC value. For each step, the purple bar shows an approximation of the step value that will be sent after the Scale and Add parameters have been applied. The other Mode parameter settings each display a preset 16 step sequence. Each step of the sequence has a red dot representing a CC value from 0 to 127. Patterns with Random or Rand in the name will produce random values for each step. The possible range of random values for each step is shown by white arrows. The SAVE SEQ Soft Button If you have adjusted any CC Sequencer settings, you have the option of saving a new CC Seq Preset to a User location, where it will be available to use with other Programs and Multis. All settings on the CC SEQ page are saved as part of the CC Seq preset, (except for the State parameter, which is stored with the Program/Multi). If you don’t save an CC Seq preset, the CC Sequencer settings will still be saved with the current Program or Multi. Press the SAVE SEQ soft button to initiate a save. You will have the option to select the ID number and name for your CC Seq preset. 3-39 Program Edit Mode The KEYMAP Page The KEYMAP Page Use the Keymap Page to select keymaps for the current layer of the Program, as well as other keymap parameters. A keymap is a group of samples that can be played by the current layer. Keymap, Keymap 1, Keymap 2 Assign a keymap to the current layer. Keymaps are collections of samples assigned to note and velocity ranges. With the Keymap parameter selected, press the EDIT button to enter the Keymap editor (see Ch. 5 Keymap and Sample Editing for details). When a DSP oscillator is being used as a layer sound source on the ALG page, the layer’s current keymap will apply the volume adjustment value of each sample in the keymap to each note played by the oscillator within those sample keyranges. To prevent this, select Keymap 999 Silence. When a DSP oscillator is being used as a layer sound source on the ALG page, and a layer’s Amp Envelope Mode is set to Natural, the natural envelope of each sample in the layer’s current keymap will be applied to each note played by the oscillator within those sample keyranges. To prevent this, select Keymap 999 Silence or set Amp Envelope Mode is set to User. Stereo Use the Stereo parameter when using stereo samples. When the Stereo parameter is set to On, the Keymap 1 and Keymap 2 parameters appear. The KEYMAP page parameters will affect both keymaps. When the Stereo parameter is set to On, the OUTPUT page for the current layer will show an additional Pan parameter. 3-40 Program Edit Mode The KEYMAP Page The PC4 contains both stereo and mono samples. Keymaps designed for stereo use are labeled with names beginning with “Stereo” or ending in “Left,” “Right,” “L,” or “R.” For stereo keymap playback, set Stereo to “On” and assign corresponding Left and Right keymaps to Keymap 1 and Keymap 2 respectively. For keymaps beginning with “Stereo,” assign the same keymap to both Keymap 1 and Keymap 2. If you select the same keymap for Keymap 1 and Keymap 2, the PC4 automatically uses the left side for Keymap 1 and the right side for Keymap 2. Once you have the keymaps assigned, go to the OUTPUT page and set the panning for each keymap as desired. If you’re not using stereo samples, you should set this parameter to Off. Transpose Use the Transpose parameter to transpose the current keymap. Key Tracking Use the Key Tracking parameter to set the pitch interval between each keyboard key. The default value of 100 cents gives you the normal semitone (half-step) interval between each note (a cent is a hundredth of a semitone). Higher values increase the interval; lower values decrease it. Negative values will cause the pitch to decrease as you play higher notes. The Key Tracking parameter on the KEYMAP page works in conjunction with Pitch KeyTrk parameter on the DSP CTL page. Unless you’re looking for nonstandard note intervals, the values of these two parameters should add up to 100 cents. Velocity Tracking Use the Velocity Tracking parameter to change the pitch of the keymap based on velocity. Different attack velocities will play different pitches of the sample root assigned to each note range. If the pitch change is great enough, the next higher or lower sample root will be played, which in some cases (many drum programs, for example) will play an entirely different sound. Positive values will play higher pitches of the sample root as you play higher attack velocities, while negative values will play lower pitches as you play higher attack velocities. 3-41 Program Edit Mode The KEYMAP Page Alt Method Each sample root in a keymap can have an alternate sample start point. The sample start points in the selected keymap can be varied between the original and alternate start point by using an assigned physical controller or other control source. This can be useful for emulating legato playing of acoustic instrument sounds, by skipping the initial attack section of samples for legato notes. When the Alt Method parameter is set to Switched, the PC4 will use the Alt point as the sample start point when the assigned controller is at a value greater than 64. When Alt Method is set to Continuous, the sample start point will vary between the original and alternate start point depending on the value of the assigned controller. Alt Control Each sample root in a keymap can have an alternate sample start point. The sample start points in the selected keymap can be varied between the original and alternate start point by using an assigned physical controller or other control source. This can be useful for emulating legato playing of acoustic instrument sounds, by skipping the initial attack section of samples for legato notes. Use the Alt Control parameter to select a control source that will adjust the sample start point. Emulating Legato Play If you place the Alt point after the initial attack transients of a sample, you can use the Alt Switch to emulate legato playing in an acoustic instrument, by skipping the initial attack section of samples for legato notes. Setting the Alt Control parameter to Chan St (Channel State) will cause the alternate sample start point to be used whenever another note is already being held. (Chan St sends a value of 127 whenever at least one note is being held in the program’s MIDI channel.) This allows non-overlapping notes to use the sample’s original start point, while overlapping notes will use the alternate start point. Timbre Shift This parameter works only on multi-sample keymaps, and changes the root selection for each key you play. A timbre-shifted note retains its original pitch, but its harmonics are those of the same timbre at a higher or lower pitch. Positive values for this parameter tend to brighten a sound, while negative values darken. 3-42 Program Edit Mode The KEYMAP Page For example, if you shift the timbre up 4 semitones, playing C 4 will result in the pitch C 4, but will actually play the sample normally assigned to G# 3 with its pitch tuned up four semitones. This will increase the playback rate of the sample, so although the pitch remains normal, the timbre is brighter. You’d get the same effect by setting the Transpose parameter on the KEYMAP page to -4 semitones, then setting the Pitch parameter on the DSP CTL page to +4 semitones. Playback Mode Setting Playback Mode to Normal plays samples in the selected keymap from their start point to their end point. Setting Playback Mode to Reverse plays samples in reverse, from their end point to their start point. Setting Playback Mode to BiDirect (bidirectional) causes the samples to loop infinitely, alternating between normal and reversed playback. Setting Playback Mode to Noise replaces the samples with a white noise generator. String Resonance Sympathetic string resonance in an acoustic piano is the phenomenon of undamped piano strings resonating as a result of sound from other notes/keys. This can be observed if one plays a C, continues holding down the key after the sound has decayed, and then forcibly presses and quickly releases another C key. The undamped strings of the held-down C key will audibly ring, providing a highly tuned “echo”, commonly known as sympathetic string resonance. The String Resonance parameter works in conjunction with the FX preset “600 String Resonance” to emulate the sound of strings resonating in an acoustic piano. When combined, these two components create KSR (Kurzweil String Resonance). Factory programs in the Piano category are set up to use KSR, and they provide a good example of how the two components should be used. When making your own program with KSR, it may be easiest to use an FX Chain from one of these programs, since they already contain controller assignments for KSR. In these Programs and Chains the dry/wet mix of the KSR effect can be controlled with Slider 6, and the effect can be enabled or disabled with assignable switch button 6. When making your own Chain, the FX preset “600 String Resonance” should be used for the first box of the Program’s insert Chain. When a layer has the String Resonance parameter set to On, the FX preset “600 String Resonance” monitors which keys are being held on that layer and uses them to tune the algorithm in the FX preset. Any audio that passes though the FX preset while these keys are held will cause emulated strings to resonate based on this tuning. When using KSR, layers which contain samples of piano notes should have the String Resonance parameter set to On. Layers that do not play samples of piano notes (such as layers for mechanical key release 3-43


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