PANAMETRICS AT868 (01) PDF MANUAL


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PDF Content Summary: September 2001 Process Control Instrument Division Model AT868 AquaTransTM Ultrasonic Flow Transmitter for Water (1- & 2-Channel) User’s Manual 910-218A1 2/15/01 Warranty Each Panametrics instrument is warranted to be free from defects in materials and workmanship. Liability under this warranty is limited to servicing an instrument returned to the factory for that purpose and/or replacing any defective parts. Fuses, batteries, and cables are specifically excluded from any liability. This warranty is effective for one year from the date of delivery to the original purchaser, provided the instrument has been installed and operated in the manner described in this Startup Manual. Panametrics must determine that the instrument was defective for this warranty to be valid. If damage is determined to have been caused by misuse or abnormal conditions of operation, the owner will be notified and approved repairs will be billed at standard rates. Return Policy If any problems develop, the following steps should be taken: 1. Notify Panametrics, giving full details of the difficulty, and provide the model and serial numbers of the instrument. Upon notification, Panametrics will then supply a RETURN AUTHORIZATION NUMBER and/or shipping instructions, depending on the problem. 2. If Panametrics provides instructions for returning the instrument to the factory, it must be sent prepaid to the authorized repair station specified in the shipping instructions. 3. If the warranty has expired or the damage has been caused by misuse or abnormal operating conditions, an estimate will be provided before any repairs are begun. September 2001 Table of Contents Chapter 1: Installation Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1 Unpacking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2 Site Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2 Electronics Enclosure Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2 Flowcell Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2 Transducer Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2 Cable Lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-3 Transducer Cables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-3 Installing a Flowcell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-3 Mounting the AT868 Electronics Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-4 Making the Electrical Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-4 Wiring the Line Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-5 Wiring the Transducers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-7 Wiring the Standard 0/4-20 mA Analog Outputs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-8 Wiring the Totalizer/Frequency Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-9 Wiring the Serial Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-10 What’s Next? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-12 Chapter 2: Programming Site Data Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1 Activating a Channel/Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-2 Entering System Data for a Channel/Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-3 Entering Transducer and Pipe Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-5 Special Transducers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-5 Special Clamp-On Transducers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-6 Pipe Material. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-6 Pipe Outside Diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-7 Path and Axial Length. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-7 Lining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-8 Tracking Windows and Fluid Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-8 Reynolds Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-9 KV Input Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-9 Number of Traverses and Transducer Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-10 Entering the Zero Cutoff Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-10 Entering Setup Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-11 Set Transducer Signal Settings - Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-11 Setting Response Time - V averaging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-14 Initializing Setup Parameters - Default Setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-14 Using Advanced Features - Advanced Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-15 Entering Global System Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-19 Setting Up the Inputs and Outputs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-21 Selecting Error Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-21 Setting Up Analog and Totalizer Outputs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-24 Configuring the Communications Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-27 i 2/15/01 Table of Contents (cont.) Chapter 3: Displaying Data Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 Adjusting LCD Contrast and Brightness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 Setting Up the Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2 Pausing and Restarting the Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 Chapter 4: Calibration Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 Calibrating and Testing the Analog Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 Testing the Output Linearity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3 Testing the Totalizer/Frequency Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4 Chapter 5: Error Codes Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 E0: No Error. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 E1: Low Signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 E2: Sound Speed Error. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 E3: Velocity Range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 E4: Signal Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 E5: Amplitude Error. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 E6: Cycle Skip, Accel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 E7: Analog Out Error. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 E8: Unassigned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 E9: Totalizer Overflow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 E10: Unassigned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 E11: Unassigned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 E12: Unassigned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 E13: Volumetric Overflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 Chapter 6: Diagnostics Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 Displaying Diagnostic Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 Diagnostic Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3 Flowcell Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4 Fluid Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4 Pipe Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5 Transducer Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6 Wetted Transducer Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6 Clamp-on Transducer Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7 Chapter 7: Parts Replacement Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 Replacing the LCD Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2 Replacing the Fuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3 Replacing the User Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4 ii September 2001 Table of Contents (cont.) Chapter 8: Specifications General Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-1 Electrical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-2 Transducer Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-4 Pipe Size and Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-5 Appendix A: Menu Maps The Channel Status, System, Pipe Parameters and Input/Output Menu Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1 The Global and Pause Menu Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2 The Channel SETUP Menu Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-3 The Calibration Menu Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-4 Appendix B: CE Mark Compliance Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1 EMC Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1 LVD Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-2 Appendix C: Data Records Site Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1 Appendix D: Measuring P and L Dimensions Measuring P and L. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1 Appendix E: Service Record Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1 Data Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1 Diagnostic Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-3 iii Chapter 1 Installation Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1 Unpacking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2 Site Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2 Installing a Flowcell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-3 Mounting the AT868 Electronics Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-4 Making the Electrical Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-4 What’s Next?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-12 2/15/01 Introduction To ensure safe and reliable operation of the Model AT868 Flowmeter, the system must be installed in accordance with the guidelines established by Panametrics’ engineers. Those guidelines, explained in detail in this chapter, include the following topics: • Unpacking the Model AT868 system • Selecting suitable sites for the electronics enclosure and the flowcell/transducers • Installing the flowcell/transducers Note: See the enclosed Liquid Transducer Installation Guide (916- 055) for detailed instructions on transducer installation. • Installing the electronics enclosure • Wiring the electronics enclosure !WARNING! Be sure to follow all applicable local safety codes and regulations for installing electrical equipment. Consult company safety personnel or local safety authorities to verify the safety of any procedure or practice. !ATTENTION EUROPEAN CUSTOMERS! To meet CE Mark requirements, all cables must be installed as described in Appendix B, CE Mark Compliance. Installation 1-1 2/15/01 Unpacking Carefully remove the electronics enclosure, the transducers, and the cables from the shipping containers. Before discarding any of the packing materials, account for all components and documentation listed on the packing slip. The discarding of an important item along with the packing materials is all too common. If anything is missing or damaged, contact the factory immediately for assistance. Site Considerations Because the relative location of the flowcell and the electronics enclosure is important, use the guidelines in this section to plan the AT868 installation.

Electronics Enclosure Location The standard Model AT868 electronics enclosure is an epoxy-coated aluminum NEMA 4, IP66 weatherproof enclosure. Typically, the enclosure is mounted as close as possible to the transducers. When choosing a site, make sure the location permits easy access to the electronics enclosure for programming, maintenance and service. Note: For compliance with the European Union’s Low Voltage Directive (73/23/EEC), this unit requires an external power disconnect device such as a switch or circuit breaker. The disconnect device must be marked as such, clearly visible, directly accessible, and located within 1.8 m (6 ft) of the Model AT868.

Flowcell Location Ideally, choose a section of pipe with unlimited access; for example, a long stretch of pipe that is above ground. However, if the flowcell is to be mounted on an underground pipe, dig a pit around the pipe to facilitate installation of the transducers. Transducer Location For a given fluid and pipe, the Model AT868’s accuracy depends primarily on the location and alignment of the transducers. In addition to accessibility, when planning for transducer location, adhere to the following guidelines: • Locate the transducers so that there are at least 10 pipe diameters of straight, undisturbed flow upstream and 5 pipe diameters of straight, undisturbed flow downstream from the measurement point. Undisturbed flow means avoiding sources of turbulence in the fluid such as valves, flanges, expansions, and elbows; avoiding swirl; and avoiding cavitation. • Locate the transducers on a common axial plane along the pipe. Locate the transducers on the side of the pipe, rather than the top or bottom, since the top of the pipe tends to accumulate gas and the bottom tends to accumulate sediment. Either condition will cause increased attenuation of the ultrasonic signal. There is no similar restriction with vertical pipes. However, vertical pipes should be avoided in order to insure a full pipe at the measurement point. 1-2 Installation 2/15/01 Cable Lengths Locate the electronics enclosure as close as possible to the flowcell/ transducers, preferably directly on the flowcell. However, Panametrics can supply transducer cables up to 1,000 ft (300 m) in length for remote location of the electronics enclosure. If longer cables are required, consult the factory for assistance. Transducer Cables When installing the transducer cables, always observe established standard practices for the installation of electrical cables. Do not route transducer cables alongside high amperage AC power lines or any other cables that could cause electrical interference. Also, protect the transducer cables and connections from the weather and corrosive atmospheres. Note: If you are using your own cables to connect the transducers to the electronics console, they must have electrical characteristics identical to the cables supplied by Panametrics. For transducer frequencies up to 2 MHz, the cables in each pair must be the same length within ±4 in. (10 cm). For transducer frequencies above 2 MHz, the cables in each pair must be the same length within ±0.5 in. (1.25 cm). Installing a Flowcell A flowcell is the section of pipe where the transducers are mounted. It can be created either by mounting the transducers on the existing pipeline or by mounting them on a spoolpiece. A spoolpiece is a separately manufactured pipe section, matched to the existing pipe, which contains ports for mounting the transducers. This approach allows the transducers to be aligned and calibrated before inserting the spoolpiece into the pipeline. For detailed instructions on installing the transducers and/or spoolpiece, refer to the supplied drawings and the enclosed Panametrics Liquid Transducer Installation Guide (916- 055). Installation 1-3 2/15/01

Mounting the AT868 Electronics Enclosure Making the Electrical Connections The standard model AT868 electronics package is housed in an epoxy-coated aluminum NEMA 4X, IP66 weatherproof enclosure suitable for indoor or outdoor use. Refer to Figure 1-3 on page 1-13 for the mounting dimensions and the weight of this enclosure. This section contains instructions for making all the necessary electrical connections to the Model AT868 flow transmitter. Refer to Figure 1-4 on page 1-14 for a complete wiring diagram. !ATTENTION EUROPEAN CUSTOMERS! To meet CE Mark requirements, all cables must be installed as described in Appendix B, CE Mark Compliance. !WARNING! Always disconnect the line power from the Model AT868 before removing either the front cover. Prepare the unit as described below before making any electrical connections. 1. Disconnect any previously wired power line from the unit. 2. Remove the screws on the front cover. 3. Install any required cable clamps in the appropriate conduit holes on the bottom of the enclosure. 4. Note the labels inside the enclosure to assist in wiring. Proceed to the appropriate section of this chapter to make the desired wiring connections.

1-4 Installation 2/15/01 Wiring the Line Power The Model AT868 may be ordered for operation with power inputs of 100-240 VAC or 12-28 VDC. The label on the side of the electronics enclosure lists the meter’s required line voltage and power rating. The fuse size is listed on label located under the fuse. Be sure to connect the meter only to the specified line voltage. Note: For compliance with the European Union’s Low Voltage Directive (73/23/EEC), this unit requires an external power disconnect device such as a switch or circuit breaker. The disconnect device must be marked as such, clearly visible, directly accessible, and located within 1.8 m (6 ft) of the Model AT868. Refer to Figure 1-4 on page 1-14 to locate the power terminal block and connect the line power as follows: !WARNING! Improper connection of the line power leads or connecting the meter to the incorrect line voltage may damage the unit. It may also result in hazardous voltages at the flowcell and associated piping as well as within the electronics enclosure. 1. Prepare the line power leads by trimming the line and neutral AC power leads (or the positive and negative DC power leads) to a length 0.5 in. (1 cm) shorter than the ground lead. This ensures that the ground lead is the last to detach if the power cable is forcibly disconnected from the meter. 2. Install a suitable cable clamp in the conduit hole where the line power is fed through. If possible, avoid using the other conduit holes for this purpose, to minimize any interference in the circuitry from the AC power line. !ATTENTION EUROPEAN CUSTOMERS! To meet CE Mark requirements, all cables must be installed as described in Appendix B, CE Mark Compliance. 3. Strip 1/4-in. of insulation from the end of each of the three line power leads. 4. Route the cable through the conduit hole and connect the line power leads to the power terminal block as shown in Figure 1-4 on page 1-14. 5. Leaving a bit of slack, secure the power line with the cable clamp. Installation 1-5 2/15/01

Wiring the Line Power (cont.) Caution! The transducers must be properly wired before applying power to the meter. Proceed to the next section to continue the initial wiring of the Model AT868 flow transmitter.

1-6 Installation 2/15/01 Wiring the Transducers Before wiring the AT868 transducers, complete the following steps: • Disconnect the main power from the electronics enclosure. • Remove the front cover and install all required cable clamps. !WARNING! Before connecting the transducers, discharge any static buildup by shorting the center conductor of the transducer cables to the metal shield on the cable connector. Note: For transducer frequencies below 2 MHz, the cable lengths must be within 4 in. (10 cm) of each other. If the transducer frequency exceeds 2 MHz, the cable lengths must be within 0.5 in. (1.25 cm) of each other. 1. Locate the CH1 transducer cables and connect them to the two CH1 transducers in the flowcell. Feed the free ends of the cables through the selected conduit hole in the electronics enclosure. 2. If an optional lightening protector is being installed, connect it between the meter and the transducers. 3. Refer to the wiring diagram in Figure 1-4 on page 1-14 and connect the transducer cables to the TB1 terminal block. Then, secure the cable clamp. Note: The RED cable leads are the SIG(+) leads and the BLACK cable leads are the RTN(-) leads. !ATTENTION EUROPEAN CUSTOMERS! To meet CE Mark requirements, all cables must be installed as described in Appendix B, CE Mark Compliance. 4. For a 2-Channel (path) AT868, repeat steps 1-3 to connect the CH2 transducers to terminal block TB2. It is not required that both channels/paths of a 2-Channel unit be connected. Note: The AT868 uses two channels or paths to make more accurate flow measurement by averaging, substracting or adding the channels/paths together. 5. If wiring of the unit has been completed, reinstall the front cover on the enclosure and tighten the screws. Note: A channel must be activated before it can begin taking measurements. See Chapter 2, Programming Site Data, for instructions. Proceed to the next section to continue the initial wiring of the unit. Installation 1-7 2/15/01

Wiring the Standard 0/4-20 mA Analog Outputs The Model AT868 flow transmitter has one isolated 0/4-20 mA analog output (designated as Output A). Connections to this output may be made with standard twisted-pair wiring, but the current loop impedance for these circuits must not exceed 600 ohms. To wire the analog outputs, complete the following steps: 1. Disconnect the main power to the unit and remove the front cover. 2. Install the required cable clamp in the chosen conduit hole on the bottom of the electronics enclosure. 3. Refer to Figure 1-4 on page 1-14 for the location of TB3 terminal block and wire the analog output to pins 1 and 2 as shown. Secure the cable clamp. Note: Analog outputs 1 and 2 in the wiring diagram correspond to analog outputs A and B in Slot 0 in the AT868 software. !ATTENTION EUROPEAN CUSTOMERS! To meet CE Mark requirements, all cables must be installed as described in Appendix B, CE Mark Compliance. 4. If wiring of the unit has been completed, reinstall the front cover on the enclosure and tighten the screws. Note: Prior to use, the analog output must be set up and calibrated. See Chapter 4, Calibration, for detailed instructions. Proceed to the next section to continue the initial wiring of the unit.

1-8 Installation

Wiring the Totalizer/ Frequency Output July 2001 The Model AT868 has a second output (designated as Output B) that can be a totalizer or frequency. Figure 1-1 below shows a sample wiring diagram of a totalizer and frequency output circuit. Model AT868 Pulse/Frequency Counter +5V 200Ω

OUT RTN IN Common

Figure 1-1: Totalizer/Frequency Output Wiring !WARNING! DO NOT CONNECT EXTERNAL POWER TO THE PULSE/FREQUENCY OUTPUT TERMINALS. To wire the totalizer/frequency output, complete the following steps: 1. Disconnect the main power to the unit and remove the front cover. 2. Install the required cable clamp in the chosen conduit hole on the bottom of the electronics enclosure. 3. Refer to Figure 1-4 on page 1-14 for the location of the TB3 terminal block and wire the totalizer/frequency output to pins 3 and 4 as shown. Secure the cable clamp. Note: Analog outputs 1 and 2 in the wiring diagram correspond to analog outputs A and B in Slot 0 in the AT868 software. !ATTENTION EUROPEAN CUSTOMERS! To meet CE Mark requirements, all cables must be installed as described in Appendix B, CE Mark Compliance. 4. If wiring of the unit has been completed, reinstall the front cover of the enclosure and tighten the screws. Installation 1-9 2/15/01 Wiring the Serial Port The Model AT868 flow transmitter is equipped with a built-in serial communications port. The standard port is an RS232 interface, but an optional RS485 interface is available upon request. Proceed to the appropriate sub-section for wiring instructions. For more information on serial communications refer to the EIA-RS Serial Communications Manual (916-054).

Wiring the RS232 Interface Use the serial port to connect the Model AT868 flow transmitter to a printer, an ANSI terminal or a personal computer. The RS232 interface is wired as Data Terminal Equipment (DTE), and the signals available at terminal block TB3 are shown in Table 1-1 below. Refer to Figure 1-4 on page 1-14 and complete the following steps: 1. Disconnect the main power to the unit and remove the front cover. 2. Install the required cable clamp in the chosen conduit hole on the side of the electronics enclosure. 3. Use the information in Table 1-1 below to construct a suitable cable for connecting the Model AT868 to the external device. If desired, an appropriate cable may be purchased from Panametrics. Table 1-1: RS232 Connection to DCE or DTE Device

J1 Pin # Signal Description DCE DB25 Pin # DCE DB9 Pin # DTE DB25 Pin # DTE DB9 Pin #

5 DTR (Data Terminal Ready) 6 CTS (Clear to Send) 20 4 20 4 4758

7 COM (Ground) 7 5 7 5 8 RX (Receive) 2 3 3 2 9 TX (Transmit) 3 2 2 3 Note: Signal names that imply direction (e.g., transmit and receive) are named from the point of view of the DTE device (the Panametrics meter is usually considered the DTE device). When the RS232 standard is strictly followed, these signals are labels with the same name and pin # on the DC device side as well. Unfortunately, the convention is not followed because the DTE and DCE side get confused. Therefore, connections that imply direction are changed to reflect their direction on the DCE side. 1-10 Installation

Wiring the RS232 Interface (cont.) Wiring the RS485 Interface 2/15/01 4. Feed the flying leads end of the cable through the conduit hole and wire the leads to TB3 as shown in Figure 1-4 on page 1-14. Connect the other end of the cable to the printer, ANSI terminal or personal computer, and secure the cable clamp. !ATTENTION EUROPEAN CUSTOMERS! To meet CE Mark requirements, all cables must be installed as described in Appendix B, CE Mark Compliance. After the wiring has been completed, consult the User’s Manual for the external device to configure it for use with the AT868. Use the optional RS485 serial port to network multiple AT868 flow transmitters to a single computer terminal. Upon request, the standard RS232 port on the AT868 may be configured as a two-wire, half duplex RS485 interface, through a device such as the INMAC Model 800052 RS232-RS422/RS485 converter. If the AT868 is configured at the factory for RS485 operation the INMAC converter is not necessary. Refer to one of the following sections to wire the unit: • Wiring the Serial Interface Using the INMAC Converter - see below. • Wiring the Factory-Configured Serial Interface - see the next page. Wiring the Serial Interface Using the INMAC Converter To wire the RS485 serial port, refer to Figure 1-4 on page 1-14 and complete the following steps: 1. Disconnect the main power to the unit and remove the front cover. 2. Install the required cable clamp in the chosen conduit hole on the bottom of the electronics enclosure. 3. Feed one end of the cable through the conduit hole, wire the leads to TB3 as shown in Figure 1-4 on page 1-14 and secure the cable clamp. Connect the other end of the cable to the converter, as shown in Figure 1-2 on the following page.

Installation 1-11 2/15/01

Wiring the RS485 Interface (cont.) Wiring the Serial Interface Using the INMAC Converter (cont.) !ATTENTION EUROPEAN CUSTOMERS! To meet CE Mark requirements, all cables must be installed as described in Appendix B, CE Mark Compliance. 4. If wiring of the unit has been completed, reinstall the front cover on the enclosure and tighten the screws. Proceed to the next section to continue the initial wiring of the unit. AT868 Converter

N.C. 6 1 TD OUT

N.C. RX TX 7 8 9 2 3 4 RD IN

Figure 1-2: Typical RS485 Connections Wiring the Factory-Configured Serial Interface Use the following steps to link the AT868 to the control system using a factory-configured RS485: 1. Disconnect the main power to the unit and remove the front cover. 2. Install the required cable clamp in the chosen conduit hole on the bottom of the electronics enclosure. 3. Feed the wires through the conduit hole and wire lead TMT+ to pin 8 on TB3 (refer to Figure 1-4 on page 1-14 for TB3 location). 4. Wire lead TMT- to pin 9 on TB3 and secure the cable clamp. 5. Connect the other end of the cable to the control system. What’s Next? After the AT868 has been completely installed and wired, proceed to Chapter 2, Programming Site Data, to program the meter for taking flow rate measurements. 1-12 Installation

1 A q u a T r a n s T M T r a n s m i t t e r A T 8 68 2 /1 5

3Figure 1-3: Model AT868 Outline Drawing #712-1106 - / 1 01 G r o u n d in g J P r o te c t iv e C G ND N E UT L IN E P in # A C PO 3 1 2 P in # DC PO 1 O U T 1+ 2 O U T 1- P in N o . TB 3 - 0 /4 3 O U T 2+ 4 O U T 2- P in N o . TB 3 B a c k li gh t A d ju s M o d e l A T 8 6 8 . C o n t r a s t A d j u s t m e n d ir e c t ly a c c e s s ib le a n d lo c a t e d w it h in 1 . 8 m (6 f t ) o f t h e d is c o n n e c t d e v ic e m u s t b e m a r k e d a s s u c h , c le a r ly v is ib le , d is c o n n e c t d e v ic e s u c h a s a s w it c h o r c ir c u i t b r e a k e r . T h e D ir e c t iv e (7 3 /2 3 /E E C ) , t h is u n it r e q u ir e s a n e x t e r n a l p o w e r E : F o r c o m p l ia n c e w it h t h e E u r o p e a n U n io n ' s L o w V o lt a g e 1 u m pe r o n du c to r T e r m in a l E a r th G r o u n d L in e N e u tr a l L in e P o w e r D e s c r ip t io n W ER IN P UT N o C o n n e c t io n L in e N e g a t iv e L in e P o s it iv e D e s c r ip t io n W ER IN P UT O u tp u t 1 - S IG (+ ) O u tp u t 1 - R TN ( - ) D e s c r ip t io n - 20 m A AN A LO G O U TP U TS O u tp u t 2 - S IG (+ ) O u tp u t 2 - R TN ( - ) D e s c r ip t io n - TO TA L IZ ER O U TP U TS tm e n t t S e p te m be r 20 4Figure 1-4: Model AT868 Wiring Diagram #702-425 - 0 1 1 Chapter 2 Programming Site Data Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1 Activating a Channel/Path. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-2 Entering System Data for a Channel/Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-3 Entering Transducer and Pipe Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-5 Entering the Zero Cutoff Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-10 Entering Setup Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11 Entering Global System Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-19 Setting Up the Inputs and Outputs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-21 Configuring the Communications Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-27 September 2001 Introduction The Model AT868 flow transmitter has a User Program that provides access to the various programmable features of the unit. To program the AT868 you must use Instrument Data Manager (IDM), a PC based, non-resident software program that communicates with the AT868 via its serial port. Note: If you are using IDM, the AT868 is configured with the Meter Address as 1 and the baud rate as 9600. Step-by-step programming instructions are presented in this chapter. Refer to the appropriate section for a discussion of the following SITE EDIT MENU features: • Channelx-Status - activate one or both channels/paths. Note: The AT868 uses two channels or paths to make more accurate flow measurement by averaging, subtracting or adding the channels/paths together. • Channelx-System - select volumetric, totalizer and mass flow units and other parameters. • Channelx-Pipe Parameters - enter the pipe geometry and other parameters. • Channelx-Input/Output - set up the analog and totalizer outputs. • Channelx-Setup - set the signal limits, response times and activating mass flow. • Global-System - select system units (English and metrics). • Global-Input/Output - set up error handling, outputs and display. • Global-Comm Port - set the serial port parameters. Note: The “x” in Channelx represents the channel/path number. If you are using a single channel meter, only Channel 1 will appear. To get the AT868 up and running as quickly as possible you must, as a minimum, activate the channel/path(s), enter channel/path and global system data, and pipe parameters. The What’s Next? sections at the end of each menu will help you in programming required (quick startup) and optional data. Also, as a programming aid, a complete set of menu maps for the SITE EDIT MENU are included in Appendix A, Menu Maps. The specific figure numbers will be referenced throughout this chapter, as required. Note: In this manual, only the programming of Channel 1 will be described. To program Channel 2 of a 2-channel/path meter, simply repeat the same procedures presented for Channel 1. Programming Site Data 2-1 2/15/01

Activating a Channel/ Path The STATUS submenu is used to activate/deactivate the channel/path. The channel/path should be activated when you receive your unit; however, you should verify that the channel/path is active before you begin programming. While following the programming instructions, refer to Figure A-1 on page A-1 of Appendix A, Menu Maps. Remember to record all programmed data in Appendix C, Data Records. To access the Status submenu: 1. Open the SITE EDIT MENU from the Edit Functions menu. 2. Select Channelx. 3. Select Status. 4. Select Transit to activate the channel/path and press Next Item/ Enter. If you have a 2-channel/path unit, you can also disable a channel/path. If you select Disabled you will not be able to program that channel/path. What’s Next? After completing the above step, IDM returns to the Channel PROGRAM window. Do one of the following: • To continue entering “quick startup” data, press Exit Page and proceed to Step 3 in the following section. • To continue regular programming, refer to Appendix A, Menu Maps, to navigate to the desired menu. • To leave the User Program, press Exit Page twice.

2-2 Programming Site Data

Entering System Data for a Channel/Path 2/15/01 The Channelx-System submenu is used to enter system parameters for the individual channels/paths. When channels/paths operate separately, the AT868 used the system parameters in this menu. When channels/paths are averaged together, the AT868 uses parameters selected in the Global-System submenu. While following the programming instructions, refer to Figure A-1 on page A-1 of Appendix A, Menu Maps. Remember to record all programmed data in Appendix C, Data Records. Accessing the Channelx-System submenu 1. Open the SITE EDIT MENU from the Edit Functions menu. 2. Select Channelx. 3. Select System. 4. Key in the desired CHANNEL LABEL (up to 5 characters) and press Next Item/Enter. 5. Key in the desired SITE MESSAGE (up to 21 characters) and press Next Item/Enter. (For a 2-channel/path meter, this prompt is called CHANNEL MESSAGE.) Selecting the Volumetric Units 1. Use the pull-down menu to select the desired volumetric units for the flow rate display and press Next Item/Enter. 2. Use the pull-down menu to select the desired number of digits to the right of the decimal point in the volumetric flow rate display and press Next Item/Enter. Selecting the Totalizer Units 1. Use the pull-down menu to select the desired units for the totalized flow rate display and press Next Item/Enter. 2. Use the pull-down menu to select the desired number of digits to the right of the decimal point in the totalized flow rate display and press Next Item/Enter. 3. Do one of the following: • If MASS FLOW is ON, proceed to Selecting the Mass Flow Units below. • If MASS FLOW is OFF, the meter returns to the Channel PROGRAM window. Proceed to What’s Next? on the following page. Note: To activate mass flow, refer to page 2-17.

Programming Site Data 2-3 2/15/01

Entering System Data for a Channel/Path (cont.) Selecting the Mass Flow Units 1. Use the pull-down menu to select the desired mass flow units for the flow rate display and press Next Item/Enter. The available units for this prompt are determined by the selection made at SYSTEM UNITS. 2. Use the pull-down menu to select the desired time units for the mass flow rate display and press Next Item/Enter. 3. Use the pull-down menu to select the desired number of digits to the right of the decimal point in the mass flow rate display and press Next Item/Enter. 4. Use the pull-down menu to select the desired units for the totalized mass flow rate display and press Next Item/Enter. The available units for this prompt are determined by the selection made at SYSTEM UNITS. 5. Use the pull-down menu to select the desired number of digits to the right of the decimal point in the totalized mass flow rate display and press Next Item/Enter. What’s Next? After completing the above steps, IDM returns to the Channel PROGRAM window. Do one of the following: • To continue entering “quick startup” data, press Exit Page and proceed to Step 3 in the following section. • To continue regular programming, refer to Appendix A, Menu Maps, to navigate to the desired menu. • To leave the User Program, press Exit Page twice.

2-4 Programming Site Data

Entering Transducer and Pipe Parameters 2/15/01 Enter the transducer and pipe parameters via the Pipe Parameters submenu. While following the programming instructions, refer to Figure A-1 on page A-1 of Appendix A, Menu Maps. Remember to record all programmed data in Appendix C, Data Records. Access the Pipe Parameter submenu 1. Open the SITE EDIT MENU from the Edit Functions menu. 2. Select Channelx. 3. Select Pipe Parameters. 4. For a standard transducer, enter the number engraved on the transducer head, then use the pull-down menu to select Standard and press Next Item/Enter. IMPORTANT: Special transducers have no engraved number on the head and are rarely used. Examine the transducer head carefully for a number. 5. Go to one of the following sections: • Special transducers - proceed to Special Transducers below. • Standard clamp-on transducers - proceed to Pipe Material on page 2-6. • Standard wetted transducers - proceed to Pipe Outside Diameter on page 2-7.

Special Transducers 1. Assign a number between 90 and 99 to the special transducer and press Next Item/Enter. 2. Use the pull-down menu to select the wedge type (supplied by Panametrics) and press Assign a number between 90 and 99 to the special transducer and press Next Item/Enter. 3. Use the pull-down menu to select the transducer frequency (supplied by Panametrics) and press Assign a number between 90 and 99 to the special transducer and press Next Item/Enter. Note: The frequency is required to transmit an excitation voltage at the transducer’s natural frequency. 4. Enter the special transducer time delay value (supplied by Panametrics) and press Assign a number between 90 and 99 to the special transducer and press Next Item/Enter. Tw is the time required for the transducer signal to travel through the transducer and its cable. This time delay must be subtracted from the transit times of the upstream and downstream transducers to ensure an accurate measurement. Programming Site Data 2-5 September 2001

Special Clamp-On Transducers The following two prompts only appear if special clamp-on transducers are being used. If special wetted transducers are being used, proceed to Pipe Outside Diameter on the next page. 1. Enter the wedge angle (supplied by Panametrics) of the transducer and press Next Item/Enter. 2. Enter the wedge sound speed (supplied by Panametrics) of the transducer and press Next Item/Enter. 3. Proceed to Pipe Material below. IMPORTANT: The frequency is required to transmit an excitation voltage at the transducer’s natural frequency.

Pipe Material If a standard clamp-on transducer is being used, the programming sequence should be rejoined here. 1. Use the pull-down menu to select the pipe material and press Next Item/Enter. Some of the pipe materials above require additional selections. See a complete list of choices in Table 2-1 below. Table 2-1: Pipe Material Choices Material Types STEEL Carbon Stainless Steel IRON Ductile Cast Cu (Copper) no additional selection required Al (Aluminum) no additional selection required BRASS no additional selection required

CuNi (Copper Nickel) 70% Cu 30% Ni 90% Cu 10% Ni

GLASS Pyrex Heavy silicate flint Light borate crown Plastic Nylon Polyethylene Polypropylene PVC, CPVC Acrylic OTHER Enter the sound speed of the pipe material and press Next Item/Enter. If the sound speed is unknown, refer to the Sound Speeds and Pipe Size Data manual (914-004). 2-6 Programming Site Data 2/15/01 Pipe Outside Diameter The programming sequence should be rejoined here for all transducers. 1. Enter the known pipe outside diameter or circumferences, then use the pull-down menu to select the units. Press Next Item/Enter. Obtain the required information by measuring either the pipe outside diameter (OD) or circumference at the transducer installation site. The data may also be obtained from standard pipe size tables found in Sound Speeds and Pipe Size Data manual (914-004). 2. Enter the know thickness of the pipe wall and press Next Item/ Enter. If the pipe wall thickness is not available, look up the value in a table of standard pipe size data which can be found in Sound Speeds and Pipe Size Data manual (914-004). 3. Do one of the following: • All wetted transducers - proceed to Path and Axial Length below. • All clamp-on transducers - proceed to Lining on the next page. Path and Axial Length 1. Enter the path length of the ultrasonic signal. 2. Select the desired units and press Next Item/Enter. Note: If a spoolpiece was ordered with the meter, the transducer signal path length (P) and the transducer signal axial length (L) are engraved on the flowcell and/or are included in the documentation supplied with the meter. For on-site transducer installations, refer to Appendix D, Measuring P and L Dimensions, for instructions. 3. Enter the axial length of the ultrasonic signal and press Next Item/ Enter. 4. Select the desired units and press Next Item/Enter. 5. Proceed to Tracking Windows and Fluid Type on the next page. Programming Site Data 2-7 2/15/01 Lining 1. Use the pull-down menu to select whether the pipe has a lining and press Next Item/Enter. 2. Do one of the following: • If you selected No, proceed to Tracking Windows and Fluid Type below. • If you selected Yes, proceed to the next step. 3. Use the pull-down menu to select the lining material and press Next Item/Enter. 4. If you selected OTHER, enter the lining sound speed, press Next Item/Enter; then enter the lining thickness and press Next Item/ Enter.

Tracking Windows and Fluid Type 1. At TRACKING WINDOWS select Yes or No. 2. The selections for fluid type vary depending on whether the Tracking Window is enabled or disabled. Use the pull-down menu to select the desired fluid and press Next Item/Enter. Refer to Table 2-2 below for a list of available fluids. Table 2-2: Fluid Types Tracking Windows = NO YES Methanol (25C) Water, 0-100C Ethanol (25C) Water, 0-260C LN2 Oil, Tracking Freon OTHER OTHER 3. If you selected OTHER, enter the additional information as prompted and press Next Item/Enter.

2-8 Programming Site Data 2/15/01 Reynolds Correction 1. Use the pull-down menu to select whether to activate or deactivate the Reynolds Correction Factor and press Next Item/Enter. 2. Do one of the following: • If you selected Off, enter the Calibration Factor and press Next Item/Enter. Then, proceed to one of the following sections: • For Clamp-on Transducers - proceed to Number of Traverses and Transducer Spacing on the next page. • For Wetted Transducers - IDM returns to the Channel PROGRAM window. At this point, you can proceed programming in this submenu as desired. To leave the Channel PROGRAM window, press EXIT PAGE. To complete setting up the meter, you must enter data in the Global System submenu as described on page 2-19. • If you selected Active, proceed to KV Input Selection below. KV Input Selection 1. Use the pull-down menu to enter a static kinematic viscosity or a table of values and press Next Item/Enter. 2. Do one of the following: • If you selected Use KV/SS table, enter the Calibration Factor and press Next Item/Enter. Note: The values in the KV/SS table can be edited as described in Entering KV/SS Table on page 2-15. • If you selected Enter Static KV, enter the Kinematic Viscosity and press Next Item/Enter. Then enter the Calibration Factor and press Next Item/Enter. 3. Proceed to one of the following sections: • For Clamp-on Transducers - proceed to Number of Traverses and Transducer Spacing on the next page. • For Wetted Transducers - IDM returns to the Channel PROGRAM window. At this point, you can proceed programming in this submenu as desired. To leave the Channel PROGRAM window, press EXIT PAGE. To complete setting up the meter, you must enter data in the Global System submenu as described on page 2-19. Programming Site Data 2-9 2/15/01

Number of Traverses and Transducer Spacing Entering the Zero Cutoff Value 1. Use pull-down menu to select the number of traverses and press Next Item/Enter. 2. Enter the value for the transducer spacing and press Next Item/ Enter. What’s Next? After completing the above steps, IDM returns to the Channel PROGRAM window. Do one of the following: • To continue entering “quick startup” data, press Exit Page twice and proceed to Entering Global System Data on page 2-19. • To continue regular programming, refer to Appendix A, Menu Maps, to navigate to the desired menu. • To leave the User Program, press Exit Page twice. Near a zero flow rate, the Model AT868’s readings may fluctuate due to small offsets caused by thermal drift or similar factors. To force a zero display reading when there is minimal flow, enter a zero cutoff value as described below. While programming these parameters, refer to Figure A-1 in Appendix A, Menu Maps. Remember to record all programmed data in Appendix C, Data Records. 1. Open the SITE EDIT MENU from the Edit Functions menu. 2. Select Channelx. 3. Select Input/Output. 4. Enter a value from 0 to 1 ft/sec (0 to 0.30 m/sec) for the zero cutoff and press Next Item/Enter. The recommended setting is 0.1 ft/sec (0.03 m/sec). What’s Next? After completing the above steps, IDM returns to the Channel PROGRAM window. Do one of the following: • To continue regular programming, refer to Appendix A, Menu Maps, to navigate to the desired menu. • To leave the User Program, press Exit Page twice.

2-10 Programming Site Data 2/15/01 Entering Setup Data The signal limits and response times for the Model AT868 are specified via the SETUP submenu. The following submenus are included in this section: • Signal - set the parameters related to the transducer signal • V average - specify the response of the meter to step changes • Default Setup - initialize all parameters to default values • Advanced Features - enable mass flow, edit kinematic viscosity vs. sound speed table, activate K factors, and select transmit code length. While following the programming instructions, refer to Figure A-3 in Appendix A, Menu Maps. Remember to record all programmed data in Appendix C, Data Records.

Set Transducer Signal Settings - Signal Use this option to set the limits for the incoming signal and other parameters affecting the transducer signal. For example, the programmed signal strength low limit may be used to determine the trigger point for an alarm. Caution! The SIGNL default settings are suitable for most applications. Consult the factory before changing any of these parameters. 1. Open the SITE EDIT MENU from the Edit Functions menu. 2. Select Channelx. 3. Select SET UP. 4. Select Signal. 5. Use Table 2-3 on the next page to enter the desired values. Enter or select a value and press Next Item/Enter.

Programming Site Data 2-11 2/15/01 Set Transducer Signal Settings - Signal (cont.) Table 2-3: Transducer Signal Settings Transducer

Signal Parameters Range Default Value Miscellaneous Information Signal Low Limit Correlation Peak Limit Soundspeed+- Limit -20 to 100 20 The E1:LOW SIGNAL error message appears when the signal strength falls below the programmed SIG NAL LOW LIMIT value. See Chapter 5, Error Codes, for a discussion of error codes. 0 to 500 100 The E4: SIGNAL QUALITY error message appears when the signal quality falls below the programmed COR. PEAK LIMIT value. See Chapter 5, Error Codes, for a discussion of error codes. 1 to 50% 20% The E2:SOUNDSPEED error message appears when the calculated fluid sound speed differs from the fluid sound speed entered in the Channelx-System menu by more than the programmed SOUNDSPEED +- LIMIT value. See Chapter 5, Error Codes, for a discussion of error codes.

Velocity Low Limit Velocity High Limit Acceleration Limit -500 to 500 ft/sec (-150 to 150 m/ sec) -500 to 500 ft/sec (-150 to 150 m/ sec) 0 to 100 ft/ sec2 (0 to 30 m/sec2) -150.0 ft/sec (-46 m/sec) 150.0 ft/sec (46 m/sec) 15.0 ft/sec2 (4.6 m/sec2) The E3: VELOCITY RANGE error messages appears when the calculated fluid velocity is less than the pro grammed VELOCITY LOW LIMIT value. See Chapter 5, Error Codes, for a discussion of error codes. The E3: VELOCITY RANGE error messages appears when the calculated fluid velocity exceeds the pro grammed VELOCITY HIGH LIMIT value. See Chapter 5, Error Codes, for a discussion of error codes. The E6: CYCLE SKIP error message appears when the calculated fluid velocity changes by more than the programmed ACCLERATION LIMIT value from one reading to the next. See Chapter 5, Error Codes, for a discussion of error codes.

Amplitude Discriminator Low 0 to 100 14 The amplitude measures the transducer signal received by the Model AT868. The E5: AMPLITUDE error message appears when the amplitude discriminator falls below the programmed AMP. DISCRIM. LOW value. See Chapter 5, Error Codes, for a discussion of error codes.

2-12 Programming Site Data 2/15/01 Set Transducer Signal Settings - Signal (cont.) Table 2-3: Transducer Signal Settings (cont.) Transducer

Signal Parameters Range Default Value Miscellaneous Information Amplitude Discriminator High 0 to 100 34 The amplitude discriminator measures the transducer signal received by the Model AT868. The E5: AMPLI TUDE error message appears when the amplitude discriminator exceeds the programmed AMP. DIS CRIM. LOW value. See Chapter 5, Error Codes, for a discussion of error codes. Delta F Offset -1000 to 1000 ∝sec % of Peak -100 to 100% 0 ∝sec An offset between the upstream and downstream transit times is specified at this prompt. 50% The percentage of peak used to calculate the transit times and Delta T is specified at this prompt. Note: This setting is a starting point for detecting the signal. The meter will automatically adjust this value if the calculated transit time is unacceptable. You can set the limits for this value using the MIN. PEAK% and MAX. PEAK% discussed at the end of this table.

Transmitter Voltage Xmit Sample Size Low or High 2, 4, 6, 8, 16 or 32 Low The transmitter voltage can be set to low or high to reduce power consumption. LOW (default setting) is typically selected for smaller pipes with a single-phase fluid. The LOW setting is normally sufficient. HIGH is usually selected for large pipes or liquids with one or more phases. 8 Both upstream and downstream transducers transmit ultrasonic pulses in bursts, which consist of a series of transmit pulses. XMIT SAMPLE SIZE determines how many bursts are sent in one direction before sending in the other direction.

# of Errors 0 to 16 8 Use this prompt to enter the number of errors the AT868 can record before it displays an error message.

Minimum Peak% Limit Maximum Peak% Limit -100 to 100 -100 Use this prompt to enter the minimum percent of peak that the AT868 can use to measure transit time. -100 to 100 100 Use this prompt to enter the maximum percent of peak that the AT868 can use to measure transit time.

Programming Site Data 2-13 2/15/01

Set Transducer Signal Settings - Signal (cont.) Setting Response Time - V averaging Initializing Setup Parameters - Default Setup What’s Next? After completing the above steps, IDM returns to the Channel SET UP window. Do one of the following: • To continue regular programming, refer to Appendix A, Menu Maps, to navigate to the desired menu. • To leave the User Program, press Exit Page three times. Use this option to specify the number of readings that occur before the meter will respond to a step change in flow rate. In general, the smaller the number of readings, the less steady the display will appear. Complete the following steps to set the response time: 1. Open the SITE EDIT MENU from the Edit Functions menu. 2. Select Channelx. 3. Select SET UP. 4. Select V averaging. 5. Select the response time from the pull-down menu and press Next Item/Enter. For best results, select Statistics. This increases the response time under steady flow conditions while still allowing a rapid response time under steady flow conditions while still allowing a rapid response to changes in flow rate. What’s Next? After completing the above steps, IDM returns to the Channel SET UP window. Do one of the following: • To continue regular programming, refer to Appendix A, Menu Maps, to navigate to the desired menu. • To leave the User Program, press Exit Page three times. Use this option to initialize (reset) all of the parameters within the SET UP menu back to their default values. Complete the following steps to reset all of the parameters: 1. Open the SITE EDIT MENU from the Edit Functions menu. 2. Select Channelx. 3. Select SET UP. 4. Select Default Setup. 5. Select Yes or No. What’s Next? After completing the above steps, IDM returns to the Channel SET UP window. Do one of the following: • To continue regular programming, refer to Appendix A, Menu Maps, to navigate to the desired menu. • To leave the User Program, press Exit Page three times.

2-14 Programming Site Data

Using Advanced Features - Advanced Features 2/15/01 This option enables you to enable the more advanced features of the meter. In this option you can do the following: • calculate the kinematic viscosity (KV) based on signal strength (SS) - refer to the section below. • enter a table of K-factors (based on velocity or reynolds number) that compensates for non-linear flow rates - refer to the next page. • enable mass flow (calculated for static fluid density) - refer to page 2-17. • select the size of the transducer transmission signal - refer to page 2-18.

Entering KV/SS Table Use this option to calculate the kinematic viscosity (KV) based on signal strength (SS). Complete the following steps to enter KV and SS values: 1. Open the SITE EDIT MENU from the Edit Functions menu. 2. Select Channelx. 3. Select SET UP. 4. Select Advanced Features. 5. Select Enter KV/SS table. 6. Enter the number of kinematic viscosity/sound speed pairs (2 to 20) and press Next Item/Enter. 7. Enter the signal strength value (50.0 to 85.0) and press Next Item/ Enter. You must enter the KV vs. SS pairs in descending order of KV and ascending order of SS. For example, if pair 1 is KV = 10 centistokes and SS = 62, then pair 2 must be KV ≤ 10 centistokes and SS ≥ 62. 8. Enter the kinematic viscosity values (0.050 to 500) in descending order and press Next Item/Enter. 9. Repeat Steps 7 and 8 for each pair. What’s Next? After completing the above steps, IDM returns to the Advanced Features window. Do one of the following: • To continue regular programming, refer to Appendix A, Menu Maps, to navigate to the desired menu. • To leave the User Program, press Exit Page four times. Programming Site Data 2-15 2/15/01

Entering Multiple K Factors Use this option to enter a table of K-factors. K-factors are used to create a curve for the flow range (based on velocity or reynolds number) that compensates for non-linear flow rates. Complete the following steps to enter multiple K factors for velocity or reynolds values: Note: The factors are supplied by Panametrics, without them the K factor table cannot be edited. 1. Open the SITE EDIT MENU from the Edit Functions menu. 2. Select Channelx. 3. Select SET UP. 4. Select Advanced Features. 5. Select Multiple K Factors. 6. Use the pull-down menu to select whether to activate or deactivate multiple K factors and press Next Item/Enter. Note: If you select No, proceed to What’s Next? below. 7. Use the pull-down menu to select the type of value to customize (velocity or reynolds value) and press Next Item/Enter. 8. Use the pull-down menu to select whether to edit the table and press Next Item/Enter. Note: If you select No, proceed to What’s Next? below. 9. Enter the number of K factors (2 to 20) in the table and press Next Item/Enter. 10.Enter the velocity/reynolds value for K-factor number “X” and press Next Item/Enter. Note: When editing the K-factor table, the velocities must be enter in increasing order. 11. enter the K-factor corresponding to velocity/reynolds number “X” (0.333 to 3.0) and press Next Item/Enter. 12.Repeat Steps 10 and 11 for each pair. What’s Next? After completing the above steps, IDM returns to the Advanced Features window. Do one of the following: • To continue regular programming, refer to Appendix A, Menu Maps, to navigate to the desired menu. • To leave the User Program, press Exit Page four times.

2-16 Programming Site Data 2/15/01 Activating Mass Flow Use this option to calculate mass flow from a static fluid density. Complete the following steps to enter the static density of the fluid: 1. Open the SITE EDIT MENU from the Edit Functions menu. 2. Select Channelx. 3. Select SET UP. 4. Select Advanced Features. 5. Select Mass flow from static. 6. Use the pull-down menu to select whether activate or deactivate mass flow (mass flow is calculated from a static density) and press Next Item/Enter. Note: If you select NO, proceed to What’s Next? below. 7. Enter the fluid density and press Next Item/Enter. What’s Next? After completing the above steps, IDM returns to the Advanced Features window. Do one of the following: • To continue regular programming, refer to Appendix A, Menu Maps, to navigate to the desired menu. • To leave the User Program, press Exit Page four times. Programming Site Data 2-17 2/15/01

Selecting Transmitter Code Length Use this option to select the size of the transducer transmission signal. This option is helpful when measuring flow on small pipes. Complete the following steps to select the code length. 1. Open the SITE EDIT MENU from the Edit Functions menu. 2. Select Channelx. 3. Select SET UP. 4. Select Advanced Features. 5. Select Code length. 6. Use the pull-down menu to select the transmitter code length and press Next Item/Enter. • Automatic - the meter will determine the code length (short or long) automatically based on pipe size and transducer type. • Short Code - is only a few pulses with no code pattern built in. In some cases, the diameter of the pipe is too small which does not give each transducer the necessary time to send a series of signals before receiving a series of signals. Short is also a good selection for pipes made of materials which tend to blur the signal pattern, such as Teflon. • Long Code - is a series of approximately a dozen that have a distinctive binary pattern which is easily recognizable during auto correlation. What’s Next? After completing the above steps, IDM returns to the Advanced Features window. Do one of the following: • To continue regular programming, refer to Appendix A, Menu Maps, to navigate to the desired menu. • To leave the User Program, press Exit Page four times.

2-18 Programming Site Data

Entering Global System Data September 2001 While completing these instructions, refer to the menu maps in Figures A-1 through A-4 in Appendix A, Menu Maps. Remember to record all programmed data in Appendix C, Data Records. Use the steps below to enter system information in the Global menu. Accessing the Global-System Units 1. Open the SITE EDIT MENU from the Edit Functions menu. 2. Select Global. 3. Select System. 4. Enter a short message up to 21 characters and press Next Item/ Enter. Selecting System Units 1. Use the pull-down menu to select the system units and press Next Item/Enter. For 1-channel units, IDM returns to the Global PROGRAM window. Proceed to What’s Next? on the next page. For a 2-channel/path units, proceed with the following steps. 2. Use the pull-down menu to select the volumetric units for the flow rate display and press Next Item/Enter. 3. Use the pull-down menu to select the number of digits to the right of the decimal point in the volumetric flow rate display and press Next Item/Enter. 4. Use the pull-down menu to select the desired units for the totalized flow rate display and press Next Item/Enter. 5. Use the pull-down menu to select the desired number of digits to the right of the decimal point in the totalized flow rate display and press Next Item/Enter. 6. Do one of the following: • If MASS FLOW is ON, proceed to Selecting the Mass Flow Units on the following page. • If MASS FLOW is OFF, the meter returns to the Channel PROGRAM window. Proceed to What’s Next? on the following page. Note: To activate mass flow, refer to page 2-17.

Programming Site Data 2-19 September 2001

Entering Global System Data (cont.) Selecting the Mass Flow Units 1. Use the pull-down menu to select the desired mass flow units for the flow rate display and press Next Item/Enter. The available units for this prompt are determined by the selection made at SYSTEM UNITS. 2. Use the pull-down menu to select the desired time units for the mass flow rate display and press Next Item/Enter. 3. Use the pull-down menu to select the desired number of digits to the right of the decimal point in the mass flow rate display and press Next Item/Enter. 4. Use the pull-down menu to select the desired units for the totalized mass flow rate display and press Next Item/Enter. The available units for this prompt are determined by the selection made at SYSTEM UNITS. 5. Use the pull-down menu to select the desired number of digits to the right of the decimal point in the totalized mass flow rate display and press Next Item/Enter. What’s Next? After completing the above steps, IDM returns to the Global PROGRAM window. Do one of the following: • You have completed entering “quick startup” data. You can continue programming or exit the user program as described below. • To continue regular programming, refer to Appendix A, Menu Maps, to navigate to the desired menu. • To leave the User Program, press Exit Page twice.

2-20 Programming Site Data

Setting Up the Inputs and Outputs September 2001 Set up the AT868’s inputs and outputs via the Input/Output submenu. While following the programming instructions, refer to Figures A-1 and A-4 in Appendix A, Menu Maps. Remember to record all programmed data in Appendix C, Data Records. The Input/Output submenu consists of the following: • Error Handling - program the meter’s response during an error condition - see below. • Options - set up the analog and totalizer outputs - page 2-24. • Display - set up the optional LCD display (refer to Chapter 3, Setting Up the Display on page 3-2).

Selecting Error Handling This menu option lets you set how the AT868 will handle the outputs for measurements and average (two-path) measurements during an error condition. See Chapter 5, Error Codes, for a discussion of the built-in error codes. Use the steps below to enter system information in the Global menu. 1. Open the SITE EDIT MENU from the Edit Functions menu. 2. Select Global. 3. Select Input/Output. 4. Select Error Handling. 5. Use the pull-down menu to select the desired option for error handling and press Next Item/Enter. See Table 2-4 and Table 2-5 on the following page for a description of error handling options available and how the totalizers and display responds to them for a single- and 2-channel/path meter. Programming Site Data 2-21 September 2001

Selecting Error Handling (cont.) Table 2-4: Error Options and Responses for a 1-channel Meter Option Output Response Totalizer Response

Hold Last Value Force Low Force High Force High High Holds the last “good” reading. Forces the outputs to the low set point. Forces the outputs to the high set point. Forces the outputs ≈10% above the high set point. Holds the last “good” reading and continues to totalize, based on that reading. Stops totalizing. Stops totalizing. Stops totalizing.

Table 2-5: Error Options and Responses for a 2-Channel/Path Meter Totalizer Response When Error Handling is

When Measuring CH1 or CH2 (vel, vol, etc.) Display Response Holds last “good” reading. HOLD Holds last “good” reading and continues to totalize based on that “good” reading. LOW, HIGH, HHIGH Stops totalizing.

SUM Adds two channels/paths using the last “good” reading. DIF Subtracts two channels/paths using the last “good” reading. Holds last “good” reading and continues to totalize based on two channels/ paths. Holds last “good” reading and continues to totalize based on two channels/ paths. Stops totalizing if either or both channels/paths go into error. Stops totalizing if either or both channels/paths go into error.

AVE See Error Handling for Average Measurements below. 6. Do one of the following: • For a 1-channel meter, proceed to What’s Next? on the next page. • For a 2-channel/path meter, proceed to Step 7 on the next page. 2-22 Programming Site Data

Selecting Error Handling (cont.) September 2001 7. Use the pull-down menu to activate or deactivate two-path error handling and press Next Item/Enter. The 2PATH ERROR HANDLING option is intended for applications where two sets of transducers are installed in the same location in the same pipe to improve accuracy and the meter is operated in AVE mode. With this function enabled, the Model AT868 performs error handling only if both channels/paths are in error. If this function is disabled, error handling occurs when either channel/path goes into error. Specific responses of the display and the totalizer to the two-path error handling option available at the above prompt are listed in Table 2-6 below. Table 2-6: 2-Path Error Response Options Option Display Response Totalizer Response

NO Displays the average of channels/paths 1 and 2, regardless of the error state of either channel/ path. YES 1. If one channel/path is in error, the other channel/path’s value is displayed as the average. 2. If both channels/paths are in error, the last average reading is held. What’s Next? Outputs the average of channels/paths 1 and 2 totals, regardless of the error state of either chan nel/path. 1. If one channel/path is in error, totalizing continues. 2. If both channels/paths are in error, totalizing stops.

After completing the above steps, IDM returns to the Global I/O window. Do one of the following: • To continue regular programming, refer to Appendix A, Menu Maps, to navigate to the desired menu. • To leave the User Program, press Exit Page three times. Programming Site Data 2-23 September 2001

Setting Up Analog and Totalizer Outputs The Model AT868 has one built-in analog output and one totalizer/ frequency output which must be set up. To accomplish this, refer to one of the following sections: • Analog Output - refer to section below. • Totalizer/Frequency Output - refer to the next page.

Analog Output Accessing Output A 1. Open the SITE EDIT MENU from the Edit Functions menu. 2. Select Global. 3. Select Input/Output. 4. Select Options. 5. Use the pull-down menu to select Output A and press Next Item/ Enter. Setting Up Output Scale 1. Use the pull-down menu to select the desired output scale and press Next Item/Enter. 2. Do one of the following: • If you selected Off, IDM returns to the Global Input/Output window. Proceed to What’s Next? below. • If you are using a 1-channel meter, go to Step 4. • If you are using a 2-channel/path meter, go to Step 3. 3. At Channel, use the pull-down menu to select the desired channel/path and press Next Item/Enter. 4. Use the pull-down menu to select the desired measurement parameter and press Next Item/Enter. Note: The measurement units that appear in these prompts are those selected in the Global System window earlier in this section. 5. At Base, enter a flow rate value for the low end of the analog output range and press Next Item/Enter. 6. At Full, enter a flow rate value for the high end of the analog output range and press Next Item/Enter. What’s Next? After completing the above steps, IDM returns to the Global Input/ Output window. Do one of the following: • To continue regular programming, refer to Appendix A, Menu Maps, to navigate to the desired menu. • To leave the User Program, press Exit Page three times. 2-24 Programming Site Data

Totalizer/Frequency Output September 2001 This output is configured at the factory for frequency or totalizer output. The totalizer output issues one pulse per selected volume of flow. The meter produces a pulse each time the programmed amount of flow passes through the pipe. The frequency output issues a square wave signal which has a frequency proportional to the assigned measurement parameter, such as flow rate. Accessing Output B 1. Open the SITE EDIT MENU from the Edit Functions menu. 2. Select Global. 3. Select Input/Output. 4. Select Options. 5. Select Output B and press Next Item/Enter. 6. If you are configuring a • frequency output, proceed to the next section Setting Up the Frequency Output below. • totalizer output, proceed to Setting Up the Totalizer Output on the next page. Setting Up the Frequency Output 1. At Output B, select Off or Frequency and press Next Item/Enter. 2. Do one of the following: • If you selected Off, IDM returns to the Global I/O window. Proceed to What’s Next? on the next page. • If you are using a 1-channel meter, go to Step 4. • If you are using a 2-channel/path meter, go to Step 3. 3. At Channel, use the pull-down menu to select the desired channel/path and press Next Item/Enter. 4. Use the pull-down menu to select the desired measurement parameter and press Next Item/Enter. Note: The measurement units that appear in these prompts are those selected in the Global System window earlier in this section. 5. Enter the low measurement level (value that corresponds to 0 Hz) and press Next Item/Enter. 6. Enter the high measurement level (value that corresponds to the maximum frequency and press Next Item/Enter. 7. Enter the maximum frequency and press Next Item/Enter. 8. Proceed to What’s Next? on the following page.

Programming Site Data 2-25 September 2001

Totalizer/Frequency Output (cont.) Setting Up the Totalizer Output 1. At Output B, select Off or Totalizer and press Next Item/Enter. 2. Do one of the following: • If you selected Off, IDM returns to the Global I/O window. Proceed to What’s Next? below. • If you are using a 1-channel meter, go to Step 4. • If you are using a 2-channel/path meter, go to Step 3. 3. At Channel, use the pull-down menu to select the desired channel/path and press Next Item/Enter. 4. Use the pull-down menu to select the desired measurement parameter and press Next Item/Enter. Note: The measurement units that appear in these prompts are those selected in the Global System window earlier in this section. 5. Enter a value for the minimum pulse on time (between 50 ∝sec and 500,000 ∝sec) for the frequency of the totalizer pulses and press Next Item/Enter. Note: A complete pulse consists of equal amounts of ON and OFF times. Choose a value that is compatible with the counter to be used. 6. Enter a value for the number of measurement units represented by each pulse and press Next Item/Enter. 7. Proceed to What’s Next? below. What’s Next? After completing the above steps, IDM returns to the Global I/O window. Do one of the following: • To continue regular programming, refer to Appendix A, Menu Maps, to navigate to the desired menu. • To leave the User Program, press Exit Page three times.

2-26 Programming Site Data

Configuring the Communications Port September 2001 The Model AT868 flow transmitter is equipped with a built-in serial communications port. The standard port is an RS232 interface; however, an RS485 interface is available upon request. The AT868 can receive and execute remote commands, using the Instrument Data Manager software, by connecting the meter’s serial interface to the serial port of the PC. In addition, the Model AT868 can transmit stored data and displayed readings to a personal computer via this link. Use the Comm Port submenu to set the communications port. While following the programming instructions, refer to Figure A-2 on page A-2 in Appendix A, Menu Maps. Remember to record all programmed data in Appendix C, Data Records. Use the steps below to configure the communications port: Note: The default settings for the AT868 are Meter Address = 1 and baud rate = 9600. 1. Open the SITE EDIT MENU from the Edit Functions menu. 2. Select Global. 3. Select Comm Port. 4. Enter a meter address (between 1 and 254) and press Next Item/ Enter. The default number is 1. A meter address is only necessary for communication with the Panametrics Instrument Data Manager software. See the IDM User’s Manual for more information. IMPORTANT: If the meter address or baud rate is changed, communication with the Instrument Data Manager must be re-established with the new address number. 5. Use the pull-down menu to select a baud rate and press Next Item/Enter. What’s Next? After completing the above steps, IDM returns to the Global PROGRAM window. Do one of the following: • To continue regular programming, refer to Appendix A, Menu Maps, to navigate to the desired menu. • To leave the User Program, press Exit Page twice.

Programming Site Data 2-27 Chapter 3 Displaying Data Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-1 Adjusting LCD Contrast and Brightness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-1 Setting Up the Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-2 Pausing and Restarting the Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-3 2/15/01 Introduction If the Model AT868 flow transmitter is equipped with an optional Liquid Crystal Display (LCD), it may be programmed to display up to four variables in sequence. To ease viewing, both the brightness and the contrast of the LCD may be adjusted. In addition, the User Program offers a command to pause the measurement.

Adjusting LCD Contrast and Brightness Both the contrast and the brightness of the optional LCD may be adjusted to suit individual needs. The Model AT868 has two adjustment potentiometer located on the LCD circuit board (see Figure 3-1 below). Using these pots for the LCD adjustment, complete the following steps: 1. Loosen the six set screws to remove the front cover. 2. With power still applied to the meter, carefully use a small screwdriver to adjust the LCD brightness. Turning the BKLT (backlight) pot fully clockwise yields maximum brightness. 3. In a similar manner, adjust the CONT (contrast) pot to set the LCD contrast as desired. At either extreme of the CONT pot, the display is unreadable; turn the pot fully counterclockwise and then turn it clockwise very slowly until the display is clear. CONT Potentiometer BKLT Potentiometer Figure 3-1: Location of CONT and BKLT Potentiometers

Displaying Data 3-1 2/15/01

Adjusting LCD Contrast and Brightness (count.) 4. Readjust the BKLT control, as desired. 5. Replace the front cover on the AT868, and secure it in place with the set screws.

Setting Up the Display Use IDM to establish communications with the AT868. Then, complete the following instructions to display the desired data on the LCD (refer to Figure A-2 on page A-2 in Appendix A, Menu Maps). Accessing the Display submenu 1. Open the SITE EDIT MENU form the Edit Functions menu. 2. Select the Global. 3. Select Input/Output. 4. Select Display. Configuring the Display 1. At # of LCD PARAMS, use the pull-down menu to select the desired number of parameters to be sequentially displayed and press Next Item/Enter. For a 2-channel/path AT868, proceed to Step 3. For a 2-channel/path meter, proceed to Step 2. 2. Use the pull-down menu to select the desired channel/path option and press Next Item/Enter. 3. At Measurement Name, select the desired parameter and press Next Item/Enter. Note: The measurement units that appear in these prompts are those selected in the Global System menu as described in Chapter 2, Programming Site Data. The previous two prompts repeat until all of the specified # of LCD PARAMS have been set up. Proceed to What’s Next? below. What’s Next? After completing the above steps, IDM returns to the Global I/O window. Do one of the following: • To perform another programming function, refer to Appendix A, Menu Maps, to navigate to the desired menu. • To leave the User Program, press Exit Page three times. After leaving the User Program, the AT868 will reset itself and will begin to display the parameters specified in this section. If more than one parameter was set up, each of the parameters will be displayed in sequence, with a pause of several seconds between display changes. 3-2 Displaying Data

Pausing and Restarting the Measurement 2/15/01 The User Program offers a command that enables you to pause and start the measurement display as follows (refer to Figure A-2 on page A-2 in Appendix A, Menu Maps.) Pausing the Measurement Display 1. Open PAUSE MEASUREMENT from the Edit Functions menu. 2. Select Stop Measurement. 3. To leave the User Program, press Exit Page. Restarting the Measurement Display 1. Open PAUSE MEASUREMENT from the Edit Functions menu. 2. Select Measure Flow. 3. To leave the User Program, press Exit Page.

Displaying Data 3-3 Chapter 4 Calibration Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-1 Calibrating and Testing the Analog Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-1 Testing the Output Linearity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-3 Testing the Totalizer/Frequency Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-4 2/15/01 Introduction Use this menu to calibrate and test the analog and totalizer/frequency outputs. Refer to Figure A-4 on page A-4, in Appendix A, Menu Maps, while following the calibration instructions.

Calibrating and Testing the Analog Output The Model AT868 flowmeter includes one built-in analog output (A) with a resolution of 5.0 ∝A (0.03% full scale). Both the zero-point and full-scale values for this output must be calibrated. Once it is calibrated, the linearity should be tested. Note: The zero point of the analog output may be set for either 0 mA or 4 mA. However, the calibration procedure always uses the 4 mA point, as the meter will extrapolate this value to obtain the 0 mA point. Preparing for Calibration Prepare for calibration by inserting an ammeter in series with the load on analog output 1 at pins 1 and 2 (OUT1), as shown in Figure 4-1 below. DO NOT connect the ammeter directly across the terminals. OUT2 OUT1 4321 - + - + Load - + Ammeter Figure 4-1: Ammeter Connection (Output 1)

Calibration 4-1 2/15/01

Calibrating and Testing the Analog Output (cont.) Accessing the Calibration Menu 1. Open the CALIBRATION/TEST from the Edit Functions menu. 2. Select Calibration. 3. Select SLOT0. 4. Select Output A. Calibrating the Low End of the Analog Output 1. Select 4 mA. 2. Select the desired option to adjust the 4 mA reading. 3. When the desired reading is achieved, select STORE. If the ammeter reading cannot be adjusted with 5.0 ∝A of the 4 mA setting, select ABORT to end calibration and contact the factory for assistance. Calibrating the High End of the Analog Output 1. Select 20 mA. 2. Select the desired option to adjust the 20 mA reading. 3. When the desired reading is achieved, select STORE. If the ammeter reading cannot be adjusted with 5.0 ∝A of the 20 mA setting, select ABORT to end calibration and contact the factory for assistance. What’s Next? After completing the above steps, IDM returns to the ANALOG OUTPUT window. Do one of the following: • Proceed to Step 1 under Testing Linearity on the next page. • To perform another programming function, refer to Appendix A, Menu Maps, to navigate to the desired menu. • To leave the User Program, press Exit Page three times.

4-2 Calibration

2/15/01 Testing the Output Accessing the Calibration Menu Linearity 1. Open the CALIBRATION/TEST from the Edit Functions menu. 2. Select Calibration. 3. Select SLOT0. 4. Select Output A. Testing Linearity 1. Select %Test. 2. Enter 50, press Next Item/Enter, and check the ammeter reading. Table 4-1 below submenu lists the expected ammeter readings at various % Full Scale settings, for both 4-20 mA and 0-20 mA scales. Refer to this table to verify the accuracy of the ammeter readings taken above. Note: If the linearity test readings are not with 5mA of the values listed in Table 4-1, check the accuracy and wiring of the ammeter. Then, repeat the low and high end calibrations. If the analog output still does not pass the linearity test, contact the factory for assistance. 3. Enter a different output (0-100%) and press Next Item/Enter. Check the ammeter reading at this setting and press Next Item/ Enter when done. Table 4-1: Expected Ammeter Readings % Full Scale 4-20 mA Scale* 0-20 mA Scale* 0 4.000 0.000 10 5.600 2.000 20 7.200 4.000 30 8.800 6.000 40 10.400 8.000 50 12.000 10.000 60 13.600 12.000 70 15.200 14.000 80 16.800 16.000 90 18.400 18.000 100 20.000 20.000 * all ammeter readings should be ±0.005 mA What’s Next? After completing the above steps, IDM returns to the ANALOG OUTPUT window. Do one of the following: • To perform another programming function, refer to Appendix A, Menu Maps, to navigate to the desired menu. • To leave the User Program, press Exit Page three times.

Calibration 4-3 2/15/01

Testing the Totalizer/ Frequency Output Preparing for Calibration Prepare for the testing procedure by connecting a frequency counter to pins 3 and 4 on the OUT2 terminal block. Calibrating the Output 1. Open the CALIBRATION/TEST from the Edit Functions menu. 2. Select Calibration. 3. Select SLOT0. 4. Select Output B. 5. Enter the totalizer frequency (or frequency) and press Next Item/ Enter. What’s Next? After completing the above steps, IDM returns to the OUTPUTS window. Do one of the following: • To perform another programming function, refer to Appendix A, Menu Maps, to navigate to the desired menu. • To leave the User Program, press Exit Page twice.

4-4 Calibration Chapter 5 Error Codes Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1 E0: No Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1 E1: Low Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1 E2: Sound Speed Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-2 E3: Velocity Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-2 E4: Signal Quality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-2 E5: Amplitude Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-2 E6: Cycle Skip, Accel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3 E7: Analog Out Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3 E8: Unassigned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3 E9: Totalizer Overflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3 E10: Unassigned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3 E11: Unassigned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3 E12: Unassigned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3 E13: Volumetric Overflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3 2/15/01 Introduction The Model AT868 ultrasonic flowmeter is a reliable, easy to maintain instrument. When properly installed and operated, as described in Installation, the meter provides accurate flow rate measurements with minimal user intervention. However, if a problem should arise with the electronics enclosure, the transducers or the flowcell, a built-in error code message system greatly simplifies the troubleshooting process. All of the possible Model AT868 error code messages are discussed in this chapter, along with the possible causes and the recommended actions. When an error code is generated, it will appear in the LCD screen. If an error message appears on the display screen during operation of the Model AT868, refer to the appropriate section of this chapter for instructions on how to proceed. E0: No Error Problem: No error condition currently exists. Cause: This message appears briefly to confirm that the response to another error message has corrected the problem. Action: No action is required. E1: Low Signal Problem: Poor ultrasonic signal strength or the signal exceeds the limits entered via the User Program. Cause: Poor signal strength may be caused by a defective cable, a flowcell problem, a defective transducer or a problem in the electronics console. A signal that exceeds the programmed limits is probably caused by the entry of an improper value in the Setup Signal sub-menu of the User Program. Action: Using the procedures in Chapter 6, Diagnostics, check the components listed above. Also, check the value entered into the Setup Signal sub-menu, as described on page 2-11. Error Codes 5-1 2/15/01 E2: Sound Speed Error Problem: The sound speed exceeds the limits programmed in the Setup Signal sub-menu of the User Program. Cause: The error may be caused by incorrect programming, poor flow conditions or poor transducer orientation. Action: Compare the measured sound speed to tabulated nominal values for the fluid being used and correct any programming errors (see page 2-11). Refer to Chapter 6, Diagnostics, to correct any flowcell and/or transducer problems. E3: Velocity Range Problem: The velocity exceeds the limits programmed in the Setup Signal sub-menu of the User Program. Cause: This error may be caused by the entry of improper programming data or by poor flow conditions and/or excessive turbulence. Action: Make sure the actual flow rate is within the programmed limits. Also, check the value entered into the Setup Signal sub-menu, as described on page 2-11. Refer to Chapter 6, Diagnostics, to correct any flowcell and/or transducer problems. E4: Signal Quality Problem: The signal quality is outside the limits programmed in the Setup Signal sub-menu of the User Program. Cause: The peak of the upstream or downstream correlation signals has fallen below the correlation peak limit, as set in the Setup Signal sub-menu. This may be caused by a flowcell or electrical problem. Action: Check for sources of electrical interference and verify the integrity of the electronics console by temporarily substituting a test flowcell that is known to be good. Check the transducers and relocate them, if necessary. See Chapter 6, Diagnostics, for instructions. E5: Amplitude Error Problem: The signal amplitude exceeds the limits programmed in the Setup Signal sub-menu of the User Program. Cause: Solid or liquid particulates may be present in the flowcell. Poor coupling for clamp-on transducers. Action: Refer to Chapter 6, Diagnostics, to correct any flowcell problems. 5-2 Error Codes 2/15/01 E6: Cycle Skip, Accel. Problem: The acceleration exceeds the limits programmed in the Setup Signal sub-menu of the User Program. Cause: This condition is usually caused by poor flow conditions or improper transducer alignment. Action: Refer to Chapter 6, Diagnostics, to correct any flowcell and/or transducer problems. E7: Analog Out Error Problem: The current in the analog output circuit exceeds the limits for the analog output port. Cause: The output load exceeds the specified limits for the analog output port. Action: Make sure the output load is <600 ohms for the analog outputs. E8: Unassigned E9: Totalizer Overflow Problem: The totalizers are unable to keep up with the total accumulated flow signals. Cause: The programmed units/pulse value is too small. Action: Select a larger number of units/pulse value. E10: Unassigned E11: Unassigned E12: Unassigned

E13: Volumetric Overflow Problem: This error code message indicates that the present measurement exceeds the range of the meter. Cause: A internal mathematical overflow has occurred in either the volumetric or mass flow calculations. Action: Select larger measurement units or a shorter time interval for the current measurement parameter. For example, choose MGAL/M instead of GAL/M in the Channelx System menu (see page 2-3).

Error Codes 5-3 Chapter 6 Diagnostics Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-1 Displaying Diagnostic Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-1 Diagnostic Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-3 Flowcell Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-4 Transducer Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-6 2/15/01 Introduction This chapter explains how to troubleshoot the Model AT868 if problems arise with the electronics enclosure, the flowcell, or the transducers. Indications of a possible problem include: • display of an error message on the LCD screen • erratic flow readings • readings of doubtful accuracy (i.e. readings that are not consistent with readings from another flow measuring device connected to the same process). If any of the above conditions occurs, proceed with the instructions presented in this chapter.

Displaying Diagnostic Parameters The Model AT868 has built-in Diagnostic Parameters to aid in the troubleshooting of flowcell, transducer and/or electrical problems. To access these parameters, use IDM to establish communications with the AT868 and do the following (refer to Figure A-2 on page A-2 in Appendix A, Menu Maps): Accessing the Display submenu 1. Open the SITE EDIT MENU from the Edit Functions menu. 2. Select Global. 3. Select Input/Output. 4. Select Display. Configuring the Display 1. At # of LCD PARAMS, use the pull-down menu to select the desired number of parameters to be sequentially displayed and press Next Item/Enter. Note: If you select LCD OFF, IDM returns to the Global Input/ Output window. Proceed to What’s Next? on the following. For a 1-channel AT868, proceed to Step 3. For a 2-channel/path meter, proceed to Step 2. 2. Use the pull-down menu to select the desired channel/path option and press Next Item/Enter.

Diagnostics 6-1 2/15/01

Displaying Diagnostic Parameters (cont.) 3. At Measurement Name, select the desired diagnostic parameter (refer to Table 6-1 below for a list of available diagnostic parameters) and press Next Item/Enter. Note: The measurement units that appear in these prompts are those selected in the Global System menu as described in Chapter 2, Programming Site Data. The previous two prompts repeat until all of the specified # of LCD PARAMS have been set up. Proceed to What’s Next? on the following page.

Table 6-1: Available Diagnostic Parameters Option Bar Description Good Bad

UP Sig Strength Displays the signal strength for the upstream transducer. DN Sig Strength Displays the signal strength for the down stream transducer. Soundspeed Displays the measured speed of sound in the fluid. UP Transit Displays the upstream ultrasonic signal transit time. DN Transit Displays the downstream ultrasonic signal transit time. DeltaT Displays the transit time difference between the upstream and downstream signals. 50–75 <50 or >75 50–75 <50 or >75 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. ≤1 µsec >1 µsec

K(RE) K factor, based on the Reynolds number. N.A. N.A.

PEAK% Displays the percentage of peak (set to +50 by default). Theta 3 Theta 3 is the angle between the ultrasonic beam and the normal to the pipe wall. It is calculated from the measured transit time and the clamp-on parameters (clamp-ons only). UP Signal Q Displays the signal quality for the upstream transducer. DN Signal Q Displays the signal quality for the down stream transducer. UP Amp Disc Displays the value for the signal ampli tude of the upstream transducer. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. ≥ 1200 –400 to +400 ≥ 1200 –400 to +400 24 ± 5 <19 or >29

6-2 Diagnostics 2/15/01 Displaying Diagnostic Parameters (cont.) Table 6-1: Available Diagnostic Parameters (cont.) Option Bar Description Good Bad

DN Amp Disc Displays the value for the signal ampli tude of the downstream transducer. UP +- Peak Displays signal peaks for the upstream transducer. DN +- Peak Displays signal peaks for the down stream transducer. UP Norm Factor Displays the normalization factor for the upstream transducer. DN Norm Factor Displays the normalization factor for the downstream transducer. CEE1 Displays the speed of sound in the trans ducer (clamp-on only). SIGMA Displays the statistical significance of the velocity reading. #ERROR Displays the number of errors in the last 16 readings. What’s Next? 24 ± 5 <19 or >29 100-2300 <100 or >2300 100-2300 <100 or >2300 0.85-1.0 <0.85 0.85-1.0 <0.85 N.A. N.A. near 1.0000 near 0.0000 0 >0

After completing the above steps, IDM returns to the Global Input/ Output window. Do one of the following: • To perform another programming function, refer to Appendix A, Menu Maps, to navigate to the desired menu. • To leave the User Program, press Exit Page three times. After leaving the User Program, the AT868 will reset itself and will begin to display the parameters specified in this section. If more than one parameter was set up, each of the parameters will be displayed in sequence, with a pause of several seconds between display changes. Diagnostic Record The values for the diagnostic parameters immediately after initial installation of the meter and verification of proper operation should be entered in Table E-2 in Appendix E, Service Record. These initial values can then be compared to current values to help diagnose any future malfunction of the system. Diagnostics 6-3 2/15/01 Flowcell Problems If preliminary troubleshooting with the Error Code Messages and/or the Diagnostic Parameters indicates a possible flowcell problem, proceed with this section. Flowcell problems fall into two categories: • fluid problems • pipe problems. Read the following sections carefully to determine if the problem is indeed related to the flowcell. If the instructions in this section fail to resolve the problem, contact Panametrics for assistance. Fluid Problems Most fluid-related problems result from a failure to observe the flowmeter system installation instructions, as described in Installation. Refer to Chapter 1, Installation, to correct any installation problems. If the physical installation of the system meets the recommended specifications, it is possible that the fluid itself may be preventing accurate flow rate measurements. The fluid being measured must meet the following requirements: 1. The fluid must be homogeneous, single-phase, relatively clean and flowing steadily. Although a low level of entrained particles may have little effect on the operation of the Model AT868, excessive amounts of solid or gas particles will absorb or disperse the ultrasound signals. This interference with the ultrasound transmissions through the fluid will cause inaccurate flow rate measurements. In addition, temperature gradients in the fluid flow may result in erratic or inaccurate flow rate readings. 2. The fluid must not cavitate near the flowcell. Fluids with a high vapor pressure may cavitate near or in the flowcell. This causes problems resulting from gas bubbles in the fluid. Cavitation can usually be controlled through proper installation design. 3. The fluid must not excessively attenuate ultrasound signals. Some fluids, particularly those that are very viscous, readily absorb ultrasound energy. In such a case, an E1 error code message will appear on the display screen to indicate that the ultrasonic signal strength is insufficient for reliable measurements. 6-4 Diagnostics 2/15/01 Fluid Problems (cont.) 4. The fluid sound speed must not vary excessively. The Model AT868 will tolerate relatively large changes in the fluid sound speed, as may be caused by variations in fluid composition and/or temperature. However, such changes must occur slowly. Rapid fluctuations in the fluid sound speed, to a value that is considerably different from that programmed into the AT868, will result in erratic or inaccurate flow rate readings. Refer to Chapter 2, Programming Site Data, to make sure that the appropriate sound speed is programmed into the meter. Pipe Problems Pipe-related problems may result either from a failure to observe the installation instructions, as described in Chapter 1, Installation or from improper programming of the meter. By far, the most common pipe problems are the following: 1. The collection of material at the transducer location(s). Accumulated debris at the transducer location(s) will interfere with transmission of the ultrasound signals. As a result, accurate flow rate measurements are not possible. Realignment of the flowcell or transducers often cures such problems, and in some cases, transducers that protrude into the flow stream may be used. Refer to Chapter 1, Installation, for more details on proper installation practices. 2. Inaccurate pipe measurements. The accuracy of the flow rate measurements is no better than the accuracy of the programmed pipe dimensions. For a flowcell supplied by Panametrics, the correct data will be included in the documentation. For other flowcells, measure the pipe wall thickness and diameter with the same accuracy desired in the flow rate readings. Also, check the pipe for dents, eccentricity, weld deformity, straightness and other factors that may cause inaccurate readings. Refer to Chapter 2, Programming Site Data, for instructions on programming the pipe data. In addition to the actual pipe dimensions, the path length (P) and the axial dimension (L), based on the actual transducer mounting locations, must be accurately programmed into the flowmeter. For a Panametrics flowcell, this data will be included with the documentation for the system. If the transducers are mounted onto an existing pipe, these dimensions must be precisely measured. See Appendix D, Measuring P and L Dimensions, for a thorough discussion of this topic. Diagnostics 6-5 2/15/01 Pipe Problems (cont.) 3. The inside of the pipe or flowcell must be relatively clean. Excessive build up of scale, rust or debris will interfere with flow measurement. Generally, a thin coating or a solid well-adhered build up on the pipe wall will not cause problems. Loose scale and thick coatings (such as tar or oil) will interfere with ultrasound transmission and may result in incorrect or unreliable measurements. Transducer Problems Ultrasonic transducers are rugged, reliable devices. However, they are subject to physical damage from mishandling and chemical attack. Clamp-on transducers are also subject to installation variables such as physical misalignment and faulty coupling to the pipe on which they are mounted. Because transducer problems are largely dependent on the type of transducers used, wetted or clamp-on, the following list of potential problems is grouped according to transducer type. Contact Panametrics if you cannot solve a transducer-related problem.

Wetted Transducer Problems 1. LEAKS: Leaks may occur around the transducer and/or the flowcell fittings. Repair such leaks immediately. If the leaking fluid is corrosive, carefully check the transducer and cables for damage, after the leak has been repaired. 2. CORROSION DAMAGE: If the transducer material was not properly chosen for the intended application, the transducers may suffer corrosion damage. The damage usually occurs either at the electrical connector or on the transducer face. If corrosion is suspected, remove the transducer from the flowcell and carefully inspect the electrical connector and the transducer face for roughness and/or pitting. Any transducer damaged in this manner must be replaced. Contact Panametrics for information on transducers in materials suitable for the application. 3. INTERNAL DAMAGE: An ultrasonic transducer consists of a ceramic crystal bonded to the transducer case. The bond between the crystal and the case or the crystal itself may be damaged by extreme mechanical shock and/or temperature extremes. Also, the internal wiring can be corroded or shorted if contaminants enter the transducer housing.

6-6 Diagnostics

Wetted Transducer Problems (cont.) Clamp-on Transducer Problems 2/15/01 4. PHYSICAL DAMAGE: Transducers may be physically damaged by dropping them onto a hard surface or striking them against another object. The transducer connector is the most fragile part and is most subject to damage. Minor damage may be repaired by carefully bending the connector back into shape. If the connector can not be repaired, the transducer must be replaced. IMPORTANT: Transducers must be replaced in pairs. Refer to Chapter 2, Programming Site Data, to program the new transducer data into the meter. If the instructions in this section fail to resolve the problem, contact Panametrics for assistance. 1. POOR COUPLING TO PIPE: Clamp-on transducers must be in close contact with the pipe. Make sure the pipe wall is smooth and generally free of paint. The couplant material must fill voids between the transducer and the pipe, and must be firmly coupled or bonded to both the pipe and the transducer. The pipe and transducer must be clean and dry for permanent couplant, such as grease or epoxy, to adhere properly. Enough pressure must be applied to the transducer by its clamp to hold it firmly against the pipe. 2. MISALIGNMENT: The transducer transmits relatively narrow beams of ultrasound; therefore; transducer alignment is critical to assure that the beam can travel from one transducer to the other without undue attentuation. Be sure to exactly follow the instructions that came with your transducers and clamping fixtures. Also, be sure that the transducer spacing agrees with the calculated spacing (S). 3. INTERNAL DAMAGE: Ultrasonic transducers consist of a ceramic “crystal” bonded to the transducer case. The bond between the crystal and the case may be damaged by extreme shock and by temperature extremes. The crystal itself can also be damaged by the same conditions. The internal wiring can be corroded or shorted if contaminants enter the transducer housing. 4. PHYSICAL DAMAGE: Transducers may be physically damaged by dropping them onto a hard surface or striking them against another object. Usually the connector on the transducers is the part that is damaged, as it is the most fragile. Minor damage may be repaired by carefully bending the connector back into shape. If the connector cannot be repaired, replace the transducers.

Diagnostics 6-7 2/15/01

Clamp-on Transducer Problems (cont.) IMPORTANT: Transducers must be replaced in pairs. Refer to Chapter 2, Programming Site Data, to program the new transducer data into the meter. 5. CYCLE SKIP CONDITION: A cycle skip is usually caused by a distorted or altered signal due to poor couplant, bad wall or unusual fluid disturbances. To resolve a cycle skip, recouple both transducers with proper couplant. Check your couplant for temperature ranges. In addition, make sure the pipe wall is free of paint and rust. Contact Panametrics if you cannot solve a transducer-related problem.

6-8 Diagnostics Chapter 7 Parts Replacement Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-1 Replacing the LCD Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-2 Replacing the Fuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-3 Replacing the User Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-4 2/15/01 Introduction The Model AT868 has been designed to permit easy on-site upgrades and parts replacement. See Figure 7-1 on page 7-6 for details of the standard AT868 electronics enclosure assembly. The instructions in this chapter, along with a few common tools, are all that is required to perform the following tasks: • replacing the LCD display • replacing the fuse • replacing the User Program !WARNING! Prior to performing any maintenance procedures, be sure to disconnect the main power from the unit. If the AT868 is installed in a hazardous environment, the electronics enclosure must be moved to a safe area prior to removing the cover. Note: For compliance with the European Union’s Low Voltage Directive (73/23/EEC), this unit requires an external power disconnect device such as a switch or circuit breaker. The disconnect device must be marked as such, clearly visible, directly accessible, and located within 1.8 m (6 ft) of the Model AT868. Use Figure 7-1 on page 7-6 to locate the relevant components, while completing the service procedures discussed in this chapter. IMPORTANT: Keep a detailed record of all parts installations and replacements performed on the AT868 in Appendix E, Service Record. This service history may prove very helpful in diagnosing any future problems. Parts Replacement 7-1 2/15/01

Replacing the LCD Display An optional LCD display may be included with the Model AT868. The LCD display normally provides years of dependable service, but it is easily field-replaceable when necessary. To replace the LCD display, see Figure 7-1 on page 7-6 for the component locations, and complete the following steps: 1. Disconnect the power to the AT868 and move the electronics enclosure to a flat service. !WARNING! The main power to the Model AT868 must be disconnected before proceeding. 2. Loosen the six set screws on the front cover. Remove the front cover. 3. Remove the four mounting screws on the LCD board assembly. Make sure you remove the falt and lock washers with the screws. 4. Grasp the LCD board assembly by the side edges and carefully pull it straight upward until it comes free from the terminal board. 5. Place the new LCD board assembly over the terminal board and align the connector on the top of the LCD board assembly. Firmly push the two boards together. 6. Secure the LCD board assembly to the terminal board with the four screw, flat washers and lock washers previously removed. Note: The display contrast and backlight brightness are adjustable via two potentiometers located on the LCD board assembly. Refer to Chapter 3, Displaying Data, for instructions. 7. Replace the cover and the six set screws. The meter is now ready to be placed back into service.

7-2 Parts Replacement


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