HP 3577B (01) PDF MANUAL


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PDF Content Summary: Operating Manual > http:// ps:// Network Analyzer www. 7A/B S-Parameter Test Set
HEWLETT PACKARD
HP Part Number 03577-90035 Microfiche Part Number 03577-90235
Printed in U.S.A. Print Date: October 1990
©Hewlett-Packard Company, 1989, 1990. All rights reserved.
8600 Soper Hill Road, Everett, Washington 98205-1298
HEWLETT PACKARD
CERTIFICATION Hewlett-Packard Company certifies that this product met its published specifications at the time of shipment from the factory. Hewlett-Packard further certifies that its calibration measurements are traceable to the United States National Bureau of Standards, to the extent allowed by the Bureau's calibration facility, and the calibration facilities of other International Standards Organization Members.
WARRANTY
This Hewlett-Packard product is warranted against defects in material and workmanship for a period of one year from date of shipment. During the warranty period, Hewlett-Packard Company will, at its option, either repair or replace products which prove to be defective. For warranty service or repair, this product must be returned to a service facility designated by HP. Buyer shall prepay shipping charges to HP and HP shall pay shipping charges to return the product to Buyer. However, Buyer shall pay all shipping charges, duties, and taxes for products returned to HP from another country. HP software and firmware products which are designated by HP for use with a hardware product, when properly installed on the hardware product, are warranted not to fail to execute their programing instructions due to defects in materials and workmanship. If HP receives notice of such defects during their warranty period, HP shall repair or replace software media and firmware which do not execute their programming instructions due to such defects. HP does not warrant that the operation of the software, firmware or hardware shall be uninterrupted or error free.
LIMITATION OF WARRANTY The foregoing warranty shall not apply to defects resulting from improper or inadequate maintenance by Buyer, Buyer-supplied software or interfacing, unauthorized modification or misuse, operation outside of the environmental specifications for the product, or improper site preparation or maintenance. NO OTHER WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. HEWLETT-PACKARD SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES
THE REMEDIES PROVIDED HEREIN ARE BUYER'S SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES. HEWLETT-PACKARD SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, WHETHER BASED ON CONTRACT, TORT, OR ANY OTHER LEGAL THEORY.
ASSISTANCE Product maintenance agreements and other customer assistance agreements are available for Hewlett-Packard products. For any assistance, contact your nearest Hewlett-Packard Sales and Service Office. Addresses are provided at the back of this manual
HEWLETT PACKARD
SAFETY SUMMARY The following general safety precautions must be observed during all phases of operation, service, and repair of this instrument. Failure to comply with these precautions or with specific warnings elsewhere in this manual violates safety standards of design, manufacture, and intended use of the instrument. Hewlett-Packard Company assumes no liability for the customer's failure to comply with these requirements. This is a Safety Class 1 instrument.
GROUND THE INSTRUMENT To minimize shock hazard, the instrument chassis and cabinet must be connected to an electrical ground. The instrument is equipped with a three-conductor ac power cable. The power cable must either be plugged into an approved three-contact electrical outlet or used with a three-contact to two-contact adapter with the grounding wire (green) firmly connected to an electrical ground (safety ground) at the power outlet. The power jack and mating plug of the power cable meet International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) safety standards.
DO NOT OPERATE IN AN EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE Do not operate the instrument in the presence of flammable gases or fumes. Operation of any electrical instrument in such an environment constitutes a definite safety hazard.
KEEP AWAY FROM LIVE CIRCUITS Operating personnel must not remove instrument covers. Component replacement and internal adjustments must be made by qualified maintenance personnel. Do not replace components with power cable connected. Under certain conditions, dangerous voltages may exist even with the power cable removed. To avoid injuries, always disconnect power and discharge circuits before touching them.
DO NOT SERVICE OR ADJUST ALONE Do not attempt internal service or adjustment unless another person, capable of rendering first aid and resuscitation, is present.
DO NOT SUBSTITUTE PARTS OR MODIFY INSTRUMENT Because of the danger of introducing additional hazards, do not install substitute parts or perform any unauthorized modification to the instrument. Return the instrument to a Hewlett-Packard Sales and Service Office for service and repair to ensure the safety features are maintained.
DANGEROUS PROCEDURE WARNINGS Warnings, such as the example below, precede potentially dangerous procedures throughout this manual. Instructions contained in the warnings must be followed.
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Dangerous voltages, capable of causing death, are present in this instrument. Use extreme caution when handling, testing, and adjusting.
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HEWLETT PACKARD
SAFETY SYMBOLS General Definitions of Safety Symbols Used On Equipment or in Manuals.
Instruction manual symbol: the product will be marked with this symbol when it is necessary for the user to refer to the instruction manual in order to protect against damage to the instrument.
Indicates dangerous voltage (terminals fed from the interior by voltage exceeding 1000 volts must be so marked.)
+ or ©
Protective conductor terminal. For protection against electrical shock in case of a fault. Used with field wiring terminals to indicate the terminal which must be connected to ground before operating equipment.
Low-noise or noiseless, clean ground (earth) terminal. Used for a signal common, as well as providing protection against electrical shock in case of a fault. A terminal marked with this symbol must be connected to ground in the manner described in the installation (operating) manual, and before operating the equipment.
Ai or
d
Frame or chassis terminal. A connection to the frame (chassis) of the equipment which normally includes all exposed metal structures.
Alternating current (power line.) Direct current (power line.)
Alternating or direct current (power line.)
.
Warning
The WARNING sign denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure, practice, condition or the like, which if not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in injury or death to personnel.
Caution
The CAUTION sign denotes a hazard. It calls attention to an operating procedure, practice, condition or the like, which, if not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in damage to or destruction of part or all of the product.
De
Note
The NOTE sign denotes important information. It calls attention to procedure, practice, condition or the like, which is essential to highlight.
Table of Contents
...
Introduction of the Network Analyzer HP 3577B and the HP 35677A/B S-Parameter Test Set
Front Panel Overview ... Rear Panel Overview ..... New Features and Options of the HP 3577B ... Compatibility with the HP 3577A ....., How To Use This Manual ... Instrument Description ............... Initial Inspection ........
2 8 99
Chapter 1: Getting Started
Introduction Instrument Turn On ......... "Hardkeys" & "Softkeys" ...... Definitions & Operating Hints .... In Case Of Trouble .............. Confidence Test ....................
............
.... 2-14 .... 2-16
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2-17
Chapter 2: Making Measurements
Tuned Stub Notch Filter
Measurement Set Up ..., Making Measurements ... ....... Store Trace Data ......
Save Instrument State ... Bandpass Filter
Measurement Set Up Bandwidth Measurements .. Passband Ripple ........ Passband Insertion Phase ... Group Delay ............. Limit Test
Discrete Sweep Measurement ........ Amplifier .........
Gain Compression .... Low Pass Filter .......
Measurement Set-up.. Insertion Loss ..,. Insertion Phase ..
. 2-25
. 2-35
. 2-37 .... 2-39 .... 2-47
2-54
. 2-61
.2-64 ...2-65 .... 2-67
2-70
Stopband Rejection ..............
Table of Contents
Measurement Setup ................. S21, Forward Gain And Phase .... S12 Reverse Loss $11, Input Return Loss ........... Standing Wave Ratio S22, Output Reflection Coefficient .... Complex Output Impedance .............
.....2-72 ........ 2-74 ......2-77
. 2-79 . 2-82 . 2-85
. 2-86
2-88
Chapter 3: Remote Operation
The Hewlett-Packard Interface Bus ........... The HP 3577B And The HP-IB .........
...................3-4 HP-IB Capability ...............,
..........3-4 Compatibility .............
.....3-4 Data Format Vs Transfer Rate ...
...... 3-5 Direct Plotting .............
3-6 HP-IB Verification ......
3-6 HP-IB Diagnostic Mode .......
....3-7 The HP 3577B HP-IB Address ...
Talk/listen Addresses.
......3-8 Viewing The HP-IB Address,
......3-8 Setting The HP-IB Address ........ Bus Messages ....
Bus Commands ................. .............
3-11 Device Dependent Commands ..........
3-15 Instrument Preset (default) Parameter Values .....
3-68 The Status Byte ... "How To Go Fast" Example Program ....................................3-74
Chapter 4: Key Reference
Alphabetical Listing of Hardkeys
Chapter 5: General Information
Introduction ........... Initial Inspection .... Power Requirements ..., Power Cable And Grounding Requir cements Operating Environment .... Accessories Available Accessories Supplied .....
........5-8
....5-9
Installation .... Display Alignment ....... HP-IB Connections ....... Programmable Input/Output Connector Storage and Shipment ..............
.......... 5-19
Table of Contents
HP 35677A/B Specifications ......
........5-30
Appendix A: Special Topics Appendix A
Data Processing And Structure ..........
Optimizing Sweep Time ..............
....A-4
Appendix B: Remote Graphics Appendix B
Digital Display Quick Reference Guide
................................... B-1
Appendix C: Screen Messages Appendix
Appendix D: Programming Codes, Functional Index
Appendix E: Programming Commands, Alphabetical Index
Appendix F: Bibliography
Sales Service Offices
Introduction of the HP 3577B Network Analyzer' and the HP 35677A/B S-Parameter Test Set
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The HP 3577B Option 002 Three-Channel Network Analyzer is recommended for use with the HP 35677A/B S-Parameter Test Set.
Getting Started HP 3577B
Front Panel Overview
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CAUTION 1 Do not exceed maximum signal level of +27dbm
or 30 VDC on either test port. If either of these levels is exceeded, damage to the in strument moy mesuli.
The HP 35677B has 750 Type-N female commectors for test ports one and two. These conneciors moy be physically domaged if 500 type N CON nectors are used on the test poris.
A. Softkeys Select items from the menus using these eight keys beside the display. Select a parameter for data entry, perform an immediate execution function, make a selection from a list, or display the next level menu.
Data Entry Block: appears when a data entry softkey is active or bright, and displays the current value of the parameter. When entering or modifying new data, it displays the new value. Graticule: is displayed in linear, log, or Smith Chart formats. Menu Area: is located on the right side of the screen, indicating the softkey labels of the chosen parameter.
B. Screen Areas The TRACE hardkeys in the DISPLAY FORMAT section select the active trace. This trace and the associated measurement parameters are shown on the screen in several information blocks or areas.
Marker Information Block: appears in the upper right-hand corner of the screen above the graticule. It describes the trace display function and input definition, and lists the marker position and measured value for each trace. Scale Information Area: appears in the upper left-hand corner of the screen above the graticule. It defines both the reference level (dashed line) and the vertical scale in units/division for each trace.
C. Data Entry The data entry section contains the numeric key pad and the knob. Turning the knob moves the marker or modifies a data entry. The key above the knob toggles between the marker and data entry modes. Correct an entry error by using the backspace key. The entry oft key clears the menu, which effectively eliminates further data entry.
1-2
Getting Started
HP 3577B
D. S-Parameter Test Set The HP 35677A/B is a 100 kHz to 200 MHZ scattering parameter test set built for use with the HP 3577B Option 002 Three-Receiver Network Analyzer S-Parameter Test Set. The HP 35677A provides signal, power, and control for the test set and provides a menu which includes S-parameter softkey selections S11, S21, S12, and $22.
E. Source Output The source output has overvoltage protection circuitry that disconnects the output from the source when a signal is 4 Vpk or greater
1. Source
Sweep Type: selects linear frequency sweep, alternate sweep, log frequency sweep, amplitude sweep, CW, discrete sweep, or sweep direction up or down. Sweep Mode: selects continuous, single, or manual modes. Sweep Time: is selectable from 100 ms/span to 6553 S/span for linear sweep type. For discrete sweeps, the settling time can be set for each measurement frequency Frequency: specifies the start, stop, and center frequencies, frequency span, center frequency step size, sweep resolution, and full sweep. For discrete sweeps, specify the individual frequencies to be measured. Amplitude: ranges from ---49 dBm to +15 dBm in 0.1 dB increments. It can also clear a source trip. Trigger Mode: available in free run, line, external, and immediate.
F. Receiver Inputs Two standard receiver inputs (A and R) are provided and a third optional input B is available with Option 002. All inputs have overvoltage protection circuitry that senses signal levels greater than 1.1 Vok and switches the input impedance to 1 MQ2. The inputs may be overloaded without switching if the signal level beyond the input attenuation exceeds -20 dBm, but does not exceed 1.1 Vpk.
G. System
. Special Functions: includes the HP 3577B confidence
tests, beeper and graticule on/off, service diagnostics, INPUT menu S-parameters on/off and HP Instrument BASIC program management softkeys (used for Option 1C2). Save Instrument State: saves the current state in one of five registers. Recall Instrument State:recalls a saved instrument state or the state of the instrument at the last power down. Plot: controls all plotting parameters to an HP-IB plotter. Instrument Basic: is an optional feature that supports HP Instrument BASIC programs. It adds several program management softkeys in this front panel section.
J. Display Format
Input: R, A, AVR or user defined inputs are standard. B, B/R, and four S-parameters are available with Option 002. Display Function: log magnitude, linear magnitude, phase, polar, real, imaginary, group delay and standing wave ratio. Scale: autoscale, reference level. /DIV, reference position, reference line on/off, copy scale, phase slope value, phase slope on/off. Marker: marker position, marker on/oft, zero marker, marker ofiset on/off, marker offset (value), frequency offset (value), marker coupling on/off. Store Data: store data to one of twelve registers (X1-X8 & D1-D4), and mathematically define the way it is stored. Measurement Calibration. Normalize, normalize with a
short, one port parital calibration, one port full calibration. Define Math: define seven complex constants (K1-K7), five functions (F1-F5), and use the jOmega register. Marker → ...reference level...start frequency, ...stop frequency, ...center frequency, ...maximum, ...minimum, ...discrete, marker offset on the frequency span, marker search right or left for target value. Limit: define and test to limits for trace 1 and 2. PASS or FAIL results are displayed on screen and are indicated at the Programmable 1/0 Port.
H. Receiver
Resolution Bandwidth: provides 1 kHz, 100 Hz, 10 Hz, and 1 Hz resolution filters. For discrete sweeps, resolution bandwidths may be selected for each measurement frequency. Averaging: selects a weighting value for exponential vector averaging Input Attenuation and Impedance: Allows selection of attenuation (0 dB, 20 dB), and impedance (5022 or 1 M22) and clears receiver trip(s). Length: allows for data corrections for cable lengths in units of meters or seconds.
The HP 3577B Option 002 Three-Channel Network Analyzer is recommended for use with the HP 35677A/B S-Parameter Test Set.
Getting Started HP 35778
Rear Panel Overview
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A. HP-IB Port: Control operation of the HP 3577B from a remote controller or perform direct plots using the HP-IB port. With Option 102, the HP-IB port of the HP 35778 can control other HP-IB instruments. This connector uses metric fasteners and is not compatible with older cables using English fasteners. Metric fasteners are available from HP to upgrade older cables.
Option 1C2) or an external controlier. The female 25-pin connector also has three dedicated lines (END-OF-SWEEP, END-OF-MEASUREMENT, and FAIL) for operation of custom hardware designed to simplify component testing. Any version of the HP 3577B allows use of these three outputs.
E. External Trigger: This input is used to trigger a measurement on the falling edge of a TTL signal or a switch closure to ground.
B. Port Bias 1 & 2: Two inputs on the rear of the HP 35677AB serve to connect a bias voltage to the front panel connections labeled PORT 1 or PORT 2
F. 10 MHz Output: For Option 001, the frequency reference output provides a 0 dBm signal with stability of 0.05 ppm/day, 0 to 55°C
C. Instrument Interconnect: The HP 3577B is connected to the HP 35677A/B S-Parameter Test Set at the rear panel with the interconnect cable. This cable supplies power to the test set, controls the configuration of the test set, and allows the HP 3577B to sense the presence of the test set, changing the INPUT menu.
G. External Reference in: This inout is used to phase lock the HP 3577B to an external frequency reference. The signal applied should be between -7 and +15 dBm. The frequency of the external reference may be any subharmonic of 10 MHz, but greater than 100 kHz.
D. Programmable 1/0 Port: The 8-bit I/O portion of the connector is intended to interface with non-HP-IB compatible equipment or custom hardware. Load or write to the 8-bit 10 using HP Instrument BASIC
H. CRT Display Adjustments: See Installation in the General Information section.
The HP 3577B Option 002 Three-Channel Network Analyzer is recommended for use with the HP 35677A/B S-Parameter Test Set.
Getting Started
HP 35778
New Features and Options of the HP 3577B
The feature set of the HP 3577B is a superset of the HP 3577A. Some hardware features have been made optional. The additional features and options are summarized in the following:
Discrete sweep allows the HP 3577B to make a sequence of measurements at up to 51 discrete frequencies, with individually programmed settling times and resolution bandwidths. This allows decreased measurement time without compromising accuracy.
- Limit tests can be performed on measurements, making go/no-go testing easier. Each limit,
upper and lower, is defined by the user and can be made of up to 20 line segments. Two limit tables (one for each trace) are available and automatically become part of the instrument state. Limit test results are dislayed on screen and are sent to the FAIL pin of the I/O port for control of custom hardware designed to simplify component testing.
• A general purpose 8-Bit I/O port is provided on the rear panel of the HP 3577B allowing direct
interface with external hardware. Load or write to the 8-bit I/O port using HP Instrument BASIC (Option 1C2) or an external HP-IB controller. In addition, the port has three dedicated lines usable on any version of the HP 3577B; (End Of Sweep, End Of Measurement, and FAIL). These outputs can control custom hardware such as a pass/fail light indicator for simplified component testing.
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Eight additional data registers, four additional math constants, and a jOmega register are available for building math functions, allowing more flexibility in the display of measurement results.
Standing Wave Ratio (SWR) is available as a display function providing direct display of SWR for easy interpretation of reflection measurement results.
New Options:
Instrument BASIC is available as Option 1C2. The option provides an additional 640 kBytes of random access memory (RAM) for running HP Instrument BASIC programs. Instrument BASIC provides the HP 3577B with the ability to internally run measurement programs that can take measurements, manipulate data, make decisions, and control other HP-IB components such as disc drives, switch drivers and power supplies, without the need for a controller. HP Instrument BASIC can be useful in applications requiring high security or "easy-to-execute" custom measurement routines.
Input B, which was standard for an HP 3577A, is now optional for the HP 3577B for applications requiring the third receiver.
The oven oscillator that was standard for an HP 3577A is now optional for the HP 3577B, reducing any unnecessary cost to those using an external system reference.
1-5
Getting Started HP 3577B
Compatibility with the HP 3577A
The HP 3577B enhancements were designed to improve the HP 3577A without sacrificing compatibility. In most cases, programs written for the HP 3577A can be used with the HP 3577B with no modification.
How To Use This Manual
The GETTING STARTED section is designed to help the first-time user. This section describes how to turn on the HP 3577B. It also defines some terms used in this manual, gives operating hints, and shows how to run the confidence test.
The MEASUREMENT section describes the use of the HP 3577B Network Analyzer and the HP 35677A/B S-Parameter Test Set in making typical measurements on several common devices. These measurements are examples that cover topics of general interest and demonstrate the capabilites of the HP 3577B and the HP 35677A/B.
The REMOTE OPERATION section describes the Hewlett-Packard Interface Bus and how it is used to operate the HP 3577B with a controller(computer). To use the HP 3577B under remote control, first become acquainted with front panel operation then refer to the REMOTE OPERATION section. When using Option 1C2 (HP Instrument BASIC) refer to “Using HP Instrument BASIC with the HP 3577B" for information on using this capability.
The REFERENCE section is an alphabetical listing of the front panel sections, hardkeys, and terms. Each hardkey topic shows its associated softkeys and describes each softkey command in detail.
Before proceeding, read Installation in the General Information section. This reading covers initial inspection, power requirements, power cable and grounding requirements, installation for the HP 3577B and the HP 35677A/B, and definition of the operating environment.
Getting Started
HP 3577B
Instrument Description
The HP 3577B Network Analyzer is a two-receiver,' dual trace, 5 Hz-200 MHz programmable network analyzer". It features menu-driven operation, using eight softkeys located next to the menu display area of the CRT. A menu is a list of softkey labels that appears on the CRT next to the softkeys. Display a menu by pressing the hardkey for the parameter to be modified or the measurement to be made. This permits control of many features with a minimum number of front panel keys by redefining the softkeys with each new menu. Marker information and sweep parameters are displayed above and below the CRT graticule and give the current instrument status.
Trace information displayed on the HP 3577B CRT is digitally stored as complex data (real and imaginary) in trace memory. Using the storage and math processing capabilities of the HP 3577B, up to eight different display formats may be derived from the same trace data and changes in scale may be made without repeating the measurement.
All HP 3577B graticules are electronically generated on the screen as part of the display operation. Thus, no screen overlays are needed for polar or log graticules or the Smith chart. In log sweep the graticule changes to reflect changes in start and stop frequencies.
Other features of the HP 3577B include
• Electrical length correction/measurement
• Automatic plot routines for HP-GL plotters
Limit line and test capability Discrete sweep User defined vector math Vector averaging
1 Hz resolution bandwidth
• Programmable I/O port for direct interface with external custom hardware : Automatic self-protection on the source output and receiver inputs
• Extensive data storage
The ability to save and recall six instrument states Optional HP Instrument BASIC capability for "custom" measurement routines and instrument control.
The HP 3577B has three functional blocks: SOURCE, RECEIVER, and DISPLAY FORMAT. The source and receivers work together to gather data and store it in trace memory. The display section takes the trace data and formats it for viewing.
A third receiver input is available as Option 002. A temperature stablized crystal reference oscillator is available as Option 001.
Getting Started HP 3577B
Initial Inspection
This instrument was carefully inspected both mechanically and electrically before shipment. It should meet published specifications. To confirm this, inspect the instrument for physical damage incurred in transit, inventory the supplied accessories (listed in Table 5-2), and test the electrical performance using the Confidence Test listed in the section on Getting Started. If there is physical damage, if the contents are incomplete or if the instrument does not pass the Confidence Test, notify the nearest HP Sales and Service Office. If the shipping container is damaged or the cushioning material shows signs of stress, notify the carrier as well as the Hewlett-Packard office. Keep the shipping material for the carrier's inspection.
Warning
The integrity of the protective earth ground may be interrupted if the HP 3577B is mechanically damaged. Under no circumstance should the HP 3577B be connected to power if it is damaged.
1-8
Getting Started
Introduction
This section is designed to get the first time user ready to make measurements. First, a description of the instrument turn-on procedure will be given, followed by a discussion of nomenclature used for hardkeys and softkeys in this manual. Then some operating hints and things to try in case of trouble.
Before turning on the instrument, make sure the HP 3577B is configured and fused for the available line voltage and is safely connected to the power line. As the instrument warms up, it runs a self test on internal RAM and ROM, and the front panel LED's light. By the time the CRT is warm enough to display a screen, normal operation has begun. For Option 001 (which adds the oven reference), approximately ten minutes after power is turned on, the beeper will sound again as the oven reference reaches operating temperature and switches in as the frequency reference for the HP 3577B Network Analyzer.
1-1
Getting Started Instrument Turn On
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Instrument Turn On
1. Before connecting ac power to the HP 3577B
a. Set the rear panel VOLTAGE SELECTOR switch to the position that corresponds to the
powerline voltage to be used:
Voltage Selector
Line Voltage
115V
86V to 127V at 48 Hz to 440 Hz 195V to 253V at 48 Hz to 66 Hz
230V
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To avoid serious injury, be sure that the ac power cord is disconnected before removing or installing the ac line fuse.
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b. Verify that the proper line fuse is installed in the rear-panel FUSE holder:
Voltage Selector
115V
Fuse Type 6A, 250V Normal Blo 3A, 250V Normal Blo
HP Part No. 2110-0056
2110-0003
230V
Warning
To protect operating personnel, the 3577B chassis and cabinet must be grounded. The HP 3577B is equipped with a three-wire power cord which, when plugged into an appropriate receptacie, grounds the instrument. To preserve this protection feature the power plug should only be inserted in a three-terminal receptacle having a protective earth ground contact. The protective action must not be negated by the use of an extension cord or adapter that does not have the required earth ground connection. Grounding one conductor of a two-conductor outlet is not sufficient protection. Ensure that all devices connected to the HP 3577B are also connected to the protective earth ground.
1-2
Getting Started Instrument Turn On
c. Set the front panel power switch to the OFF position.
d. Connect the ac power cord to the rear panel LINE connector. Plug the other end of the
power cord into a three-terminal grounded power outlet.
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e. Turn on the power to the instrument by pressing the LINE switch on the front panel to the
ON position. Verify that all front panel LED's illuminate simultaneously soon after the HP 3577B is turned on.
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Each time the HP 3577B is powered ON a self-test of ROM and RAM is run and the results (pass/fail) are displayed on the screen. (Normally the CRT will not show these results because it hasn't warmed up). All front panel LED's should illuminate when the instrument is first turned on. The operator should visually verify that all LED's illuminate.
f. Verify that the cooling fan on the rear panel is operating and that the SWEEP LED on the
front panel is flashing about once per second.
g. If the Option 001 (High Stability Frequency Reference) is used, approximately ten minutes
after power-on the beeper will sound and the screen message "REFERENCE UNLOCKED" will appear very briefly. This indicates that the oven reference has reached operating temperature and has been selected as the frequency reference for the Voltage Controlled Crystal Oscillator (VCXO). When the switch occurs, the VCXO takes a moment to achieve phase lock which causes the screen message. Until this switch occurs the VCXO uses its own 10 MHz crystal as the frequency reference. If “REFERENCE UNLOCKED" remains on the screen, contact an authorized repair facility
Note
If an external reference has not been connected, the internal oven will automatically become the frequency reference when it reaches operating temperature; no external connections are necessary. The jack on the rear panel marked EXTERNAL REFERENCE should not be connected to the 10 MHz REFERENCE OUTPUT beside it.
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1-3
Getting Started Definitions & Operating Hints
66
"Hardkeys" & "Softkeys"
Before using the analyzer, it is important to understand the difference between hardkeys and softkeys.
Hardkeys are front panel buttons whose functions are always the same. Most hardkeys have a label printed directly on the key. Throughout this book, they are printed like this: [HARDKEY
Softkeys are keys whose functions change with the analyzer's current menu selection. A softkey's function is indicated by video label to the left of the key (on the edge of the analyzer's screen). Throughout this book, they are printed like this: [ SOFTKEY
Definitions & Operating Hints
1. It is good practice to start a measurement setup by pressing ( INSTR PRESET ]. This is a quick
way to set all parameters to known values (the PRESET state) and is used as the common starting point for measurements in this manual. For a listing of the PRESET state parameter values, see INSTRUMENT PRESET in the REFERENCE section.
Note
The PRESET state depends on whether an HP 35677A/B S-Parameter Test Set is connected to the HP 3577B. Making the connection without turning off power to the HP 3577B Network Analyzer, requires pressing ( INSTR PRESET ) to update the starting parameter values.
2. The recommended sequence for setting up a measurement is
(INPUT)
• DISPLAY FCTN) - [ FREQ]
(AMPTD]
This sequence is a good, general start for setting up an instrument state and should be easy to remember. See the circled numbers in figure 1-1.
Getting Started Definitions & Operating Hints
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Figure 1-1. Set-Up Sequence
3. The HP 3577B is a menu-driven instrument. The hardkeys are used to display the various
menus. To select another menu, press a different hardkey. Pressing a different hardkey interrupts any data entry made using the numeric keypad if no units key is pressed since data entries must be terminated by units (e.g. Hz, dBm).
4. The softkey labels will appear next to the eight softkeys, on the right-hand side of the screen.
Each group of softkey labels is referred to as a "menu."
5. The beeper will sound when the HP 3577B displays a new screen message (unless the beeper
has been turned off; see SPECIAL FUNCTIONS in the REFERENCE chapter).
6. If the HP 3577B is used as part of a measurement system, the frequency references of all
instruments should be phase-locked to a common frequency standard. The HP 3577B will lock to a frequency reference applied to its External Reference Input located on the rear panel. The external reference must be between -7 and +15 dBm and its frequency must be 2 100 kHz (+ 20 ppm) and the result of dividing 10 MHz by an integer. Conversely, if the HP 3577B Option 001 is used, it can serve as the system reference via its 10 MHz, 0 dBm Reference Output, also located on the rear panel. If the HP 3577B Option 001 is used as
the standard, the aging rate is = 5 x 10*/day from 0 to 55 °C. 7. The HP 3577B requires 60 minutes to warm up before all of the specifications will apply except
the oven warm-up for Option 001 which requires 48 hours. However, the instrument is operable during this warm-up period.
Getting Started In Case Of Trouble
In Case Of Trouble
8. If the HP 3577B fails to respond to front panel key presses, perform the following steps until
normal operation is restored:
a. Verify that the HP-IB status indicator LED labeled “REMOTE" is not illuminated. It is
possible that the instrument has been addressed over the HP-IB bus, in which case it will not respond to front panel operation until LOCAL control is restored with the LCL ) hardkey or via a controller issued comand. The LCL) key will not restore LOCAL status if the controller has issued a LOCAL LOCKOUT command.
b. Press [ INSTR PRESET ].
c. Cycle the instrument's power by pressing [ LINE ] OFF and ON again.
Caution
The test described in the following step will erase the contents of all nonvolatile read/write memory on the main processor board. This resets all six instrument states, plot parameters, limit and discrete sweep tables, and the HP-IB parameters to their default parameters.
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d. If none of the previous steps have returned control to the front panel:
• Turn power OFF * Hold down ( SAVE ) and ( RECALL ] simultaneously . Turn power ON
Continue to hold the keys down until all power-on tests are complete. This procedure will test parts of the main processor memory not normally tested and may reset a bad memory register, allowing normal operation to continue.
· e. Contact an authorized repair facility.
Getting Started Confidence Test
Confidence Test
After unpacking the instrument or whenever a quick check of basic operation is necessary, run the confidence test using the following keystrokes.
1. Press
[SPCL FCTN)
This key is located in the SYSTEM section of the front panel. This menu contains the softkey, I CONF TEST ).
2. Press
(CONF TEST]
This selects the confidence test. Note that the screen displays a message to connect a cable between the output and the input to be tested. The menu contains commands to test any of the inputs (Option 002 adds a third input, receiver B).
Connect the cable as shown below.
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3. Press ( TEST R ) to begin the test of input R.
The HP 3577B will run nine tests and display pass/fail results of each. These tests are:
- Log Sweep signal level test
• Log Sweep flatness test
Linear Sweep signal level Linear Sweep magnitude flatness Synthesizer and L.O. feed through Amplitude Sweep accuracy Output limiter linearity
Receiver Impedance - Receiver Attenuator
If any tests fail, the HP 3577B Network Analyzer will stop the testing and display a bright failure message. Testing may be continued by pressing ( CONTINUE TEST ].
Getting Started Confidence Test
Inputs A and B may be tested in the same manner, by connecting the OUTPUT to the input to be tested and pressing the corresponding softkey. When testing is complete, press (INSTR PRESET) or any other hardkey to exit the [CONF TEST ] menu and begin a measurement setup.
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Note
If any of the HP 3577B CONFIDENCE TESTS fail, refer to the HP 3577B Service Manual for instructions.
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Warning
Service procedures should be executed by trained service personnel, only. To avoid electrical shock, do not perform any servicing procedures unless qualified,
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1-8
Making Measurements
This section contains step by step instructions demonstrating the use of the HP 3577B Network Analyzer and the HP 35677A/B S-Parameter Test Set to make measurements.
Using the HP 3577B by itself, characterize:
1. A tuned stub notch filter
a. Measurement set up b. Using the marker to make measurements c. Store trace data d. Save Instrument State
2. A bandpass filter
a. Measurement set up b. Measure -60 dB and - 3 dB bandwidths (calculate shape factor) c. Measure passband ripple d. Measure passband insertion phase e. Measure passband group delay f. Create a limit table and run a limit test g. Create a discrete sweep table and make a measurement
3. Gain compression of an amplifier
a. Measurement set up b. Measure - 3 dB gain compression point.
2-1
Making Measurements
Using the HP 35677A/B S-Parameter Test Set with the HP 3577B Option 002 Three-Channel Network Analyzer, characterize:
4. A low pass filter
a. Measurement set up b. Measure insertion loss c. Measure passband insertion phase d. Measure passband ripple e. Measure stopband rejection
5. S-parameters of an amplifier
a. Initial measurement set up b. Measure Sz1, forward gain and phase c. Measure S12, reverse loss d. Measure S11, input return loss and SWR e. Measure S22, output reflection coefficient f. Conversion of reflection coefficient to complex impedance
These measurements cover topics of general interest and common usage such that most of the capabilities of the HP 3577B Network Analyzer and HP 35677A/B S-Pa demonstrated. For details on operating features see the REFERENCE section. The listing of the hardkeys in the REFERENCE section is alphabetical.
When reading this section, key presses and connection instructions appear in the left column and measurement descriptions and observations appear in the right column. Even if no device-under-test is available and nothing is connected to be tested, references to menus and data entry help teach operation of the HP 3577B Network Analyzer. It is important to start each measurement topic at the beginning (i. e., at INSTR PRESET 1). Use the front panel pictorial for locating hardkeys.
Note that most hardkeys are used only to display a menu of softkey labels. If a mistake is made in data entry or feature selection for data entry (such as forgetting to select ( CENTER FREQ ] before beginning to enter it), pressing the hardkey again will display the original menu.
Tuned Stub Notch Filter Making Measurements
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Tuned Stub Notch Filter
Connect the cables and adapters as shown in figure 2-1. This configuration should result in a notch filter whose center frequency is related to the length of the open-ended cable. The notch filter is constructed from the following parts:
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Description
Part Number
2
HP 1250-0780
Nim) to BNC(1) adapters 1 foot BNC cable
HP 8120-1838
BNC tee (0) (0) (m)
HP 1250-0781
HP 1250-0080
BNC (f) to BNC (1) adapter 2 foot BNC cable
HP 8120-1839
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HP 8120-1838 1 For T BNC CABLES
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Figure 2-1. Circuit Configuration
2-3
Tuned Stub Notch Filter Making Measurements
This measurement exercise is designed to show:
1. How to set up the instrument state to make a measurement. 2. How to use the markers to make measurements. 3. How to store trace data. 4. How to save an instrument state.
Data entries require four steps: press a hardkey to display a menu, press a softkey (if not already active or bright) to select the parameter for data entry, enter data with the numeric key pad, and press a softkey to select units. Using the knob or arrow keys replaces the need to select units.
Either receiver input may be used for this example. Input R is defined as the default. For the following example uses receiver input A To select input A, select it in the | INPUT) menu. Note that "receiver input” refers to front panel connections R and A, while INPUT refers to the softkey selection under the [ INPUT ) hardkey.
The following measurement will show how to select the proper INPUT, DISPLAY FUNCTION, FREQUENCY, and AMPLITUDE.
2-4
Tuned Stub Notch Filter Making Measurements
Measurement Set Up
1. Press
[ INSTR PRESET ] in the SYSTEM section of the front panel.
It presets the HP 3577B parameters to their default values. These are listed under INSTRUMENT PRESET in the REFERENCE section of this manual.
.
..
2. Note that the [ INPUT ) menu is
displayed.
3. Press
[A] to select receiver input A as the INPUT definition for the active trace.
Note the LED above [ TRACE 1 ] is illuminated, indicating that trace one is active. The screen should now appear as shown in figure 2-2. Note that input B and B/R appear in the menu even if input B is not present on the HP 3577B. This selection is included in case a third input is added later,
REF LEVEL
0.000dBm
MARKER 100 000 000, OOOH 2 MAG(A) - 32.745 dBm
10.000dB
M
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Entry Block
AIR
B/R
DATA REG
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Source Output Signal Level 1
USER DEG
INPUT
LED.
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STOP 200 000 000.000Hz
STAATS 0:000Hz AMPID:X 10 DOBRO
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Figure 2-2. Log Magnitude of Input A
2-5
Tuned Stub Notch Filter Making Measurements
4. Press
(TRACE 2 ] in the DISPLAY FORMAT section that selects trace two as the active trace.
Note that the INPUT ) menu shows [ INPUT R: is active for trace two. Also, trace one and its alphanumeric information above the graticule dimmed slightly when trace two was selected.
.
..
...
.
..
5. Select input A as the active input
for trace 2 by pressing
[A]
When this key was pressed the beeper sounded and the screen message "WARNING: TRACE IS OFF” appeared. Now trace 2 will be turned on in the next step.
It displays a new menu listing the eight possible display function formats available for each trace.
6. Press
( DISP FCTN ] in the DISPLAY FORMAT section.
.
.
.
7. Press
[PHASE] to select the phase display function for the active trace.
.!:...
::::::
::
:
Pressing this key turns trace two on and defines its display function to be phase. Note that trace two is brighter than trace one. This difference in trace intensity and the LEDs above the TRACE bardkeys indicate which trace is active. Any softkey commands given or data entered will affect the active trace. Note that when trace two was turned on another set of alphanumeric information appeared above the graticule. This information applies to trace two and is the same intensity as the trace:
2-6
Tuned Stub Notch Filter Making Measurements
LOG
REF LEVEL
0.000dBm Q: 0deg:
DIV
MARKER 100 000 000.000Hz 10.0000B MAG(A)
-32.730dBm 45.000deg MARKERY00: 200 000 000Hz
OPHASEXA) 30/674.deg
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LIN MAG
PHASE
Trace 2
POLAR
Trace 2 Ref. Level
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REAL IMAG
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DELAY
START 0.000HZ AMPID - 10.0dBm
STOP 200 000 000.000Hz
OFF
Figure 2-3. Log Magnitude and Phase of Input A
The screen should now appear as shown in figure 2-3.
ii.
8. Press
FREQ in the SOURCE section.
Note that ( START FREQ ] is active. Since this is the parameter to be modified, selection of a softkey parameter is not necessary.
......
9. Press
....
:
on the numeric keypad in the DATA ENTRY section. Then press
( MHz)
10. Now select the stop frequency
by pressing
[ STOP FREQ) 1 50 [MHz].
1..
2-7
Tuned Stub Notch Filter Making Measurements
.
.
.
11. To set up the source amplitude,
press
[ AMPTD ).
Since the [AMPTD | softkey is already active, and this is the parameter to be modified, selection of a softkey parameter is not necessary. Note that the ENTRY BLOCK shows the current value of this parameter is - 10 dBm
12. Press [1]
to decrement the source amplitude by the step size.
Note thät the value in the ENTRY BLOCK and the alphanumerics at the lower left corner of the graticule show that the source amplitude is now - 11 dBm (i.e. STEP SIZE is 1 dB).
13. Press
(TRACE 1 ] SCALE] [ AUTO SCALE ). This select scale parameters that fit the active trace in the graticule.
The screen should now appear as shown in figure 2-4.
.
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25. DODABm
SCALE
MARKER 75 500 000.000Hz 5 0000 MAC (A)
-49.672 dBm 45000deg MARKER 75 500 000.000Hz
PHASE (A -86.807 deg
Trace 1 REF LEVEL
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Figure 2-4. Changing Source and Scale Parameter Value
Now the measurement set up is complete and measurements can be taken.
2-8
Tuned Stub Notch Filter Making Measurements
Making Measurements
1. First, the 3 dB width of the notch
filter will be measured. Turn the knob in the DATA ENTRY section and notice the marker's movement along the traces and change in information in the marker information block on the screen. Position the markers at the extreme left of the graticule.
The knob should be in the MARKER mode. (indicated by the LEDs above the knob). The knob toggles between the MARKER mode and. ENTRY mode using the unmarked key above the knob.
2. Press (MKR)
in the DISPLAY FORMAT section then press ( ZERO MARKER).
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.
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( ZERO MARKER.) turns on the OFFSET MARKER feature and sets the [ MARKER OFFSET ] (which is a magnitude in this case) and (FREQ OFFSET ) values to those of the regular marker.. Note that a triangular marker appears on top of the circular marker on trace one. This offset marker is now the reference for measurements taken with the marker on trace one. Note the change in the marker information block for trace one from "MARKER” to “OFFSET.”
3. Press
[ MKR - ] to display the marker placement menu.
These keys may be used to make data entries with
the marker after positioning it with the knob or to o move the marker to maximum or minimum points
on the trace.
4. Press
[MORE] to display a second level menu,
Note that MARKER TARGET is the active (bright) softkey label and that its default value is -3.000 dB.
5. Press
[ MKR - R TARG) to search right for the target value.
Note that the regular marker on trace two moves right until it reaches the first point on the trace where it is three dB below the OFFSET MARKER..
2-9
Tuned Stub Notch Filter Making Measurements
it
The second marker should appear as shown in figure 2-5.
6. Now an offset marker will find
the other 3 dB point of the filter. This offset will directly measure the 3 dB width of the notch filter. Press [MKR]
( ZERO MARKER] (MKR 1 [MORE]
(dB] [MKR - R TARG).
REF LEVEL
- 25.000dem 0.Odeg
DIV 5.000dB 45.000deg
OFFSET 59 972 500 000HZ OMKR ** MAGIA
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P : TAAG: MARKER 104 927 S00.000Hz PHASË (A) -25.534deg
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Figure 2-5. 3dB Width
2-10
Tuned Stub Notch Filter Making Measurements
7. Now the notch filter center
frequency and rejection magnitude will be measured. Press (MKR)
(MKR OFST OFF)
This is a push-push toggle type key, continued key presses will toggle the feature between ON and OFF. One keypress now turns it OFF. Note the return of the marker information block to MARKER
::::
Note that the marker information block now contains the notch center frequency and rejection magnitude as shown in figure 2-6.
8. Press
[ MKR →]
(MKR → MIN) to move the marker to the lowest value on the trace. This point is the center frequency of the notch.
Center Frequency & Rejection Level of Notch
REF LEVEL
- 25,000dam 0.Odeg
/DIV
MARKER 776735 000 000Hz 5.000dB MAGTAR -63 1398B 45.000deg 'MARRER S " 000 000Hz
PHASE (A) -34.5 42 deg
MKR REF EVIL
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MKR + STOP
MKR CENTER
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2-11
Tuned Stub Notch Filter Making Measurements
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Note that this softkey label changes to read [ DELAY APERTURE | when pressed. Also note the DELAY: APER alphanumeric data under the lower right corner of the graticule. See figure 2-7.
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..
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9. Now the group delay will be
measured. Press
[ TRACE 2] [ SCALE - 75 ( deg). Then press [ TRACE 1 ] (DISPLY FCTN ]
( DELAY] to display group delay as the active trace.
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LOG MAG
REF LEVEL
MARKER 77 735 000.000Hz O. OSEC
100. oonsEC DELAY (A - 253.59 SEC - 75.000deg 45.000deg MARKER 77 785 000.000Hz
PHASECA - 34.830deg
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STOP 150 000 000.000HZ DELAYXAPER 745, OKHZ
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Figure 2-7. Phase and Group Delay
2-12
Tuned Stub Notch Filter Making Measurements
10. Now the group delay will be
displayed in polar form. First the delay aperature will be set for convenient viewing. Press
[DELAY APERATURE ].
Note the menu of user selectable values for the delay aperture. The units are frequency in percent-of-span. Data entries are not allowed for this parameter.
11. Press
[ 1% OF SPAN] Then Press (DSPLY FCTN ]
[ POLAR) [ SCALE ]
[ AUTO SCALE ).
The POLAR softkey selects POLAR as the display function for the active trace. Since only one trace is allowed in POLAR display function, the inactive trace will be turned off. See figure 2:8.
0.
FULL SCALE 10.000mV PHASE REF 0.0deg REF POSN 0.0dag
MARKER 7 MAG(A) PHASE (A)
735 000.000Hz
156.67V - 36.05.de
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Figure 2-8. Polar Display Function
Now the measurements are complete and ready to be stored.
2-13
Tuned Stub Notch Filter Making Measurements
Store Trace Data
.
.
...
::
::
.
:::
:
::
S...
1. The measurement just made will
now be stored in one of the twelve data storage registers, X1. Press
STORE DATA in the DISPLAY FORMAT section and notice the storage menu as in figure 2-9.
FULL SCALE 10.000IV PHASE REF 0.0deg REF POSN 0.Odeg
MARKER 77 735 000.000Hz MAGCA)
$57,57WV PHASE (A) 35. 122deg
STORE REG X
STORE REG X2
STORE REG X3
STORE REG X 4
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MORE REG
USER DER
STORE
START 1 000 000.000Hz AMPTD 11.00Bm
STOP 150 000 000 000Hz
STORE & DISPLAY
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Figure 2-9. Store Data Menu
2-14
Tuned Stub Notch Filter Making Measurements
2..
..
.
2. Press
( STORE REG X1 ).
::::::.
.
........
This stores the trace data of the active trace as defined under the INPUT key into data register X1. Since the INPUT of both traces is defined to be A, it doesn't matter which trace was active in this case. The current display function has no effect on what is stored. Note the screen message "STORE. completed.
.
....
Once data is stored, it can be viewed
and manipulated without taking new measurements. To illustrate this, press [ INPUT ]
(DATA REG]
[X1 ].
Note that a sweep dot still appears. Memory sweeps are still occurring but no new measurement is being displayed. If new START and STOP. frequencies are entered, this trace will not change.
3. The data may be represented in
any of eight display functions. For example, press (DSPLY FCTN)
(LIN MAG] to view the same data in linear magnitude form. Change it back by pressing:
[LOG MAG ).
2-15
Tuned Stub Notch Filter Making Measurements
Save Instrument State
The menu for five state registers will appear as in figure 2-10. Note the screen message
INSTRUMENT STATE SAVED
1. The instrument state used to set
up the preceding measurement can also be saved. Press (SAVE) in the SYSTEM section. Then press
(SAVE REG 1 ].
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2. This state may be recalled by
pressing ( RECALL] ( RECALL REG 1 )
Cycling power or presetting the instrument will not affect this memory register.
FULL SCALE 10.000mV PHASE REF 0.Odeg REF POSN 0.Odeg
MARKER 77 735 000.000Hz MAG(X1
757, 24V PHASE 1 X 11 -35,336deg
SAVE REG
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SAVE REG
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SAVE REG 5
SAVE PGM TO DISK
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STOP 150 000 000.000HZ
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CATALOG ON OFF
Figure 2-10. Save Instrument State Menu
2-16
Bandpass Filter Making Measurements
Bandpass Filter
Connect the filter to the HP 3577B as shown in figure 2-11. The bandpass filter used in this example has a center frequency of 10.1875 MHz but the methods are the same for any bandpass filter.
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Figure 2-11.
The purpose of this measurement exercise is to demonstrate the use of the HP 3577B Network Analyzer to characterize a passband filter. The general organization is:
1. Set up the measurement 2. Measure the -60 dB and -3 dB bandwidths (calculate the shape factor) 3. Measure the passband ripple 4. Measure the passband insertion phase 5. Measure the passband group delay 6. Create a limit table and run a límit test 7. Create a discrete sweep table and make a measurement
2-17
Bandpass Filter Making Measurements
The next section will illustrate the standard means of creating a measurement set up starting with
[ INSTR PRESET ]
and the four hardkeys:
(INPUT);
DISPLY FCTN ), (FREQ ), and AMPTD 1.
This set up will select
(INPUT) = A/R, [ DISPLY FCTN) = LOG MAG,
( CENTER FREQ] = 10.1875 MHz, | FREQ SPAN ) = 100 kHz
(equivalent to setting
(START FREQ] = 10.1375 MHz ( STOP FREQ ) = 10.2375 MHz),
( AMPTD ] = 0 dBm.
Different settings may be needed depending on the filter used.
2-18
Bandpass Filter Making Measurements
Measurement Set Up
1. Press
[ INSTR PRESET ) in the SYSTEM section.
This green key presets HP 3577B parameters to their default values. These are listed under INSTRUMENT PRESET in the REFERENCE section. Note that the [ INPUT ] menu is displayed when the KP 3577B is PRESET as shown in figure 2-12. If [ INPUT ) is pressed the menu will not:
change.
Data Entry Block
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DIV 10.000dB
MARKER 100 000 000.000Hz MAGIR)
- 33. 141 dB
SG:
KOSER DEFE
INPUT
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STOP 200 000 000.000HZ
START 0.000Hz AMPTO - 10.0dBm
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Figure 2-12. Default Menu
2-19
Bandpass Filter Making Measurements
1
:
::::
...:
2. Press
[AVR ] to change the [ INPUT ] definition to A/R.
3. Press
(DSPLY FCTN ] and notice the new softkey menu. Since [LOG MAG ) is the desired display function, make no change in this menu.
These softkeys represent the eight ways measured data can be presented by the HP 3577B. The default ( DISPLY FNCTN) is Log Magnitude.
The default value for center frequency is 100 MHz.
.
.
4. Press
(FREQ ] in the SOURCE section and select
I CENTER FREQ] from the menu shown in figure 2-13.
Start Frequency Active
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DIV 10.000d@
MARKER 100 000 000,000MZ MAGI A/R) -65.89708
STARTS FREO
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FULL SWEEP
STOP 200 000 000.000HZ
START 0.000HZ AMPTD - 10.0d8m
Figure 2-13. The Frequency Menu
2-20
Bandpass Filter Making Measurements
Note that the data entry is not complete until units are selected from the menu. A "sweep span limited” message should appear on the screen.
5. Change the center frequency to
10.1875 MHz by pressing
10.1875 on the numeric keypad, then press
(MHz).
::
6. The current frequency span is
200 MHz. Reduce the span to 100 kHz by pressing
(FREQ SPAN]
100
[ kHz.
The default source amplitude is - 10 dBm without the test set and +15 dBm with the test set.
7. The noise level of figure 2-14 will
now be reduced by increasing the source amplitude and decreasing the attenuation applied to input A. Press (AMPTD ] in the SOURCE section.
REF LEVEL
0.000da
DIV 10,00088
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Figure 2-14. The Source Amplitude Menu
2-21
Bandpass Filter Making Measurements
8. Press
The entry is effective when the dBm key is pressed. In this case, increasing the source amplitude 10 dB has decreased the noise level in the stopband by : the same amount:
.
.
::..:
:
(dBm)
9. Noise may be reduced further by
selecting a receiver attenuation of OdB, as long as the input is not
overdriven in the passband. Before removing the 20 dB receiver attenuator from input A, check for a maximum signal level of <-20 dBm on input A by pressing (INPUT
(A Then read the marker amplitude by pressing [ MKR -
[MKR - MAX). Read the level in the marker information block at top of screen and make sure it is <-20 dBm. Press (INPUT)
(A/R] to return the input definition back to A/R. Select O dB attenuation by pressing
ATTEN) and toggle to
[ATTEN A 0 dB 20 dB). The noise-reduced trace is shown in figure 2-15. Compare it with figure 2-14.
...!
2-22
Bandpass Filter Making Measurements
REF LEVEL
0.000dB
MARKER 10 183 000.000M2 MAGARI -1.560.B
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Figure 2-15. Optimizing Dynamic Range
REF LEVEL
0.00008
MARKER 10 183 000.000Hz MAG I UDF} -1.450dB
NORMOIZE
0.000dB
NORMLI ZE
(SHORT)
UDF = A/R/D1
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ONE PORT FULL CAL
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SPAN 100 000.00 Ohmyz
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Figure 2-16. Normalized Bandpass Filter Response
2-23
Bandpass Filter Making Measurements
Note that the current resolution bandwidth is 1 kHz
10. The noise can be further reduced
by using a narrower resolution bandwidth. Narrower resolution bandwidths also require longer sweep times. Press (RES BW ] in the RECEIVER section and
[ 100 Hz)
11. Press
(SWEEP TIME ]
5
Any time resolution bandwidth is reduced, an increase in sweep time may be required. See OPTIMIZING SWEEP TIME in Appendix A.
12. The measurement set up will now
be normalized to correct for cable lengths, connectors, etc. Press (MEAS CAL)
and replace the bandpass filter with a BNC barrel (BNC(f) to BNC(f) adapter) and wait for a complete sweep.
13. Press
(NORMLIZE ).
When pressed, this softkey stores the active trace in a data register (D1 for trace one and D2 for trace two) and then redefines the INPUT to be the previous INPUT definition divided by the data register that was just used. Now the INPUT for trace one is ARDI (press the [ INPUT) to see it in the ENTRY BLOCK). See figure 2-16.
14. Replace the BNC barrel with the
bandpass filter.
Now the set up is complete and measurements can be taken. Most measurements are taken using the MARKER. This small circle may be moved along the trace in a number of ways, some of which will be demonstrated in the following steps.
2-24
Making Measurements
Bandwidth Measurements
.
:"TA
1. Use the knob to tune the marker
to the center of the filter. The shape factor will now be measured, starting with the 60 dB bandwidth measurement. Press [ MKR]
[ ZERO MARKER).
This softkey is used to turn on the OFFSET MARKER which is a triangle shaped marker. It has the same units as the regular marker (in this case, magnitude & frequency). Note that the marker information block above the graticule now shows OFFSET information. Note that the softkey MKR OFST ON/OFF shows the feature has been turned ON. This toggle type softkey may be used to return the marker to normal operation (OFFSET OFF) by pressing it once.
2. Press
[ MARKER OFFSET )
This softkey is used to display the magnitude of the [ OFFSET MARKER). New values may be entered with the numeric key pad or the current value may be modified with the arrow keys or the knob in the ENTRY mode when this softkey label is active (bright). See figure 2-17
9
*Marker' changes to "Offset"
REF LEVEL
0.000dB
*OFFSET 0, 000Hz
MAG (UDF) 0.000dB
MARKER POSN
10.000 OB
.
.
MARKER ON OFF
ace: 12 MARKER GESETI
17930
ZERO MARKER
MKR OFST ON OFF
SMARKER
OFFSET
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MKR CPL ON OFF
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LIMIT TABLE
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Figure 2-17. The Marker Menu
2-25
Making Measurements
3. Press
(FREQ OFFSET] to display the frequency value of the offset marker.
4. This instrument state will be
convenient to return to for measurements taken later in this
example. Therefore, the instrument state will be saved at this time. Press
SAVE) [ SAVE REG 1 ]
..
.....
.
5. Proceeding with the 60 dB
bandwidth measurement, press [ MKR-
[ MORE ]
[ MORE | displays a second-level menu ( MARKER TARGET ) is the active softkey. It is used to search for specific values.
6. To search for a value -60 dB to
the left of the zero marker, press
-60 on the numeric keypad and press
[dB] Then press
I MKR - L TARG ]. See figure 2-18.
2-26
Making Measurements
REF LEVEL 0.00003
OFFSET -30 000.000*47. MAG I UDF) -59.895dB
10.000dB
MKR A TARG
T
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MARKER TARGET
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Figure 2-18. Marker Search
2-27
Making Measurements
In this example the 60 dB bandwidth is 63.5 kHz.
.::::
:
.
::
:
7. To look for the other 60 dB
point, the [ MARKER TARGET ] key can be used again but this time the search criteria will be 0 dB. But first, the zero marker must be moved to the 60 dB point
just found. To do this, press [ MKR)
( ZERO MARKER Now to search for the other 60 dB point, press [MKR
[MORE]
[dB] Then press
MKR → R TARG). The OFFSET frequency readout (between the two markers) is the 60 dB bandwidth. See figure 2-19.
REF LEVEL
0.000dB
OFFSET 63 500.000Hz MAG UDF) -0,027B
MKR RUARG
10.000dB
WWW
.
T
MKR + L TARG
MARKERTE TRG
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.
MARKER TARGET
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RETURN
Figure 2-19. 60 dB Bandwidth
2-28
Making Measurements
......
8. Now return to the instrument
state stored earlier in preparation for measuring the 3 dB bandwidth. Press ( RECALL)
[ RECALL REG 1 ).
( MARKER TARGET] will be used again to measure the 3 dB bandwidth. Also, as each 3 dB point is measured, record the absolute frequency and amplitude of both 3 dB points. These values are needed for a later example where limit lines will be constructed using the limit table.
9. Press
[MKR ]
( MORE ).
Note that the target value is – 3.000 dB as shown on screen in the data entry block.
10. Press
(MKR → L TARG) To record the absolute frequency and amplitude of the marker, the marker offset needs to be turned off. To do this, press [ MKR and toggle to
[ MKR OFST ON OFF]. Record the marker frequency and amplitude.
11. Marker Frequency
In this example, Marker Frequency is 10.18075 MHz and Marker Amplitude is - 4.534 dB (relative to the reference level).
12. Marker Amplitude =
Tmi
13. Now turn the marker offset back
on by pressing
ZERO MARKER).
2-29
Making Measurements
.
.
.
:
:::
:
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ii
:
::
::
:
:
:
::::
:
.
..:::::: ::
:::: ::..
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.
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...'
'.
'
14. Then search for the other 3 dB
point by pressing
[MORE] and change the search criteria to
.'.'.'.'
.
.'
"..:.'
.
'.
.
......"
*
1.
9
.
[dB]
...............
...
....
::...
.....
In this example, the 3 dB bandwidth is 13.75 kHz.
.:
.
15. Press
[MKR R TARG 1 and the offset marker readout shows the 3 dB bandwidth. See figure 2-20. Shape factor may now be calculated.
.............
REF LEVEL
0.00008
OFESET 12 750.000 MAG (UDF) -0. 1900B
10,000B
R. TARG
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.
Traces
MKR + L TARG
MARKERSTREET
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0 000 de
MARKER TARGET
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Figure 2-20. 3 dB Bandwidth
Shape Factor = =
– 60 dB BW - 3 dB BW
-63,500 = 13.750 = 4.62
2-30
Making Measurements
...
16. Record the absolute frequency
and amplitude of the right 3 dB point by pressing [MKR) and toggle to
(MKR OFST ON OFF ].
.
..
.
..
.
.
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:
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.
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::::..:::.
17. Marker Frequency =
..
--
These values will be used later in this example for creating a limit table. In this example, the Marker Frequency is 10.1945 MHz and the Marker Amplitude is - 4.534 dB (relative to the reference level).
TY IC
.
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.
18. Marker Amplitude =
.
1
.:.
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2-31
Making Measurements
Passband Ripple
The next measurement is passband ripple. To make this measurement ALTERNATE SWEEP will be employed to retain the frequency span given to trace one while viewing a narrower span with trace two. When ALTERNATE SWEEP TYPE is selected, trace two starts out with preset values.
This means a different measurement set up is required for trace two, as follows:
1. Press
SWEEP TYPE ] in the SOURCE section. Then press
( ALTERNTE SWEEP ).
Alternate sweep allows each trace to have different values for start and stop frequencies, amplitude, sweep time, and resolution bandwidth.
.
Note the warning message "TRACE IS OFF” on the screen and that OFF is bright in the next menu. .
....
.
2. Press
(TRACE 2 ] (INPUT) [ A/R ).
...
::...
...
::
.
..
3. To turn trace 2 on, press
[DSPLY FCTN) (LOG MAG )
Selecting any display function has the effect of turning the trace on. All parameters for trace two revert to default parameters including AMPTD = - 10 dBm. Since AMPTD = 0 dBm for trace one, the HP 3577B will change the amplitude OUTPUT level at the beginning of each sweep. Note clicking of amplitude relays. The HP 3577B uses relays in the output circuit to determine output amplitude. If left running in a state that switches these relays regularly, the instrument will time out (switch to single sweep mode) after five minutes to reduce relay wear. See SWEEP MODE, SINGLE in the REFERENCE section.
::
:
The clicking of the output relays will stop when the amplitudes of the two traces are set equal.
4. Now trace two will be set to
similar settings as trace 1 except a narrower frequency span will be selected. Press (AMPTD ]
[dBm).
2-32
Making Measurements
27
::::
This sets the frequency span to the center portion of the 3 dB bandwidth.
9
.
.
.....
.
'
..
.
L
.....
.1 .....:::
.
.
::
5. Press
[ FREQ ]
[ CENTER FREQ] 10.1875
MHz). Then press
[ FREQ SPAN] 7.325 [ kHz ).
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.:
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6. Press
[ SCALE ] and wait until trace two has completed a full sweep before pressing
( AUTO SCALE).
V
OL
"........
(AUTO SCALE ] will evaluate the values in all bins of the active trace to determine the new scale. When the SWEEP TYPE is ALTERNATE, these values are not updated until the next sweep of the trace, If a change is made that requires rescaling (and | AUTO SCALE) is executed again), wait for the sweep to finish before pressing ( AUTO SCALE). The tracę on the screen will be updated on the sweep following the AUTOSCALE command.
..
".'.' .
1.1.2
:
7. Just to demonstrate the sweep
direction feature, press
SWEEP TYPE ] and toggle to
[ SWP DIR UP DOWN ].
M
This is a push-push toggle softkey. In this instance, selection of a different sweep direction is used only to demonstrate the use of the feature. It is useful for testing that the sweep time is not too fast. If the filter response changes on screen when the direction is changed, the sweep time needs to be longer. For other uses, see SWEEP DIRECTION listed under SWEEP TYPE in the REFERENCE section. Note that setting up a second trace is only required when alternate sweep is used.
.21
....
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2-33
Making Measurements
.
.
8. Now the measurement set up for
the second trace is complete and the bandpass ripple measurement can be made. Press [ MKR + ]
MKR MAX [ MKR ]
( ZERO MARKER ] (MKR ]
1 MKR - MIN)
[ ZERO MARKER ) moves the triangular marker to the position of the regular marker. The magnitude information in the MARKER Block for trace two is now indicating the measured passband ripple for this filter. See figure 2-21.
::.
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REF LEVEL
0.00006 - 1.500dB
/DIV 10.000 0 . 100dB
MKR RELYL.
MARKER 10 186 000.000HZ MAG ( UOF) -1.717 dB OFFSET. 3.4.6.1.,06,3HZ.. MAGUAR 03790B
MKR + START
MKR
STOP
Trace 2 is Passband +
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CENTER 10 187 500. OOOHZ CENTER 10 187 500,000HZ
SPAN 100 000,000Hz SPAN 7 325.000Hz
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Figure 2-21. Passband Ripple
2-34
Making Measurements
Passband Insertion Phase
The next measurement will be phase in the passband. To do this the sweep type will be returned to linear (the default type) so that the frequency span of trace two is the same as that of trace one.
1. Press
SWEEP TYPE] [ LIN FREQ SWEEP ).
This also normalizes trace two.
2. To quickly set up trace two, the
input definition for trace one will be copied to trace two. Press (INPUT)
[COPY Trc + + 2].
3. Press
[ MKR]
[ MKR OFST OFF ] [DSPLY FCTN)
[PHASE).
The LED over [ TRACE 2 ] indicates that trace two. is active and therefore the keys just pressed effected trace two only. Trace 2 now shows the passband insertion phase.a
4. Moving the marker (with the
knob) allows phase measurements to be made at any point on the trace. Data may be read from the marker block for trace two. The vertical parts of the trace represent 360° phase wraps.
Since the HP 3577B stores data in complex form,
180° is the range these values may have when interpreted as phase information. Note that trace two will be noisy in the same area as trace one, due lo extremely low signal levels. See figure 2-22.
2-35
Making Measurements
REF LEVEL 0.000B
MAG
MARKER 10 19 4 500.000Hz 10.00ODB MAG{UDA) - 4,597dB 45.000deg MARKER 10 194 500.000Hz
PHASE (UO) 174.684deg
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Figure 2-22. Bandpass Filter Magnitude & Phase Response
2-36
Making Measurements
Group Delay
The next measurement is group delay. The DISPLAY FUNCTION menu should still be displayed.
1. Press
(DELAY)
Note that the softkey labeled DELAY changes to DELAY APERTURES
2. Press
SCALE ( AUTO SCALE) so that the trace appears as large as possible without clipping the upper and lower boundaries of the graticule.
3. Now press
(DSPLY FCTN ]
( DELAY APERATURE ] [ 2% OF SPAN).
( DELAY APERATURE ] displays the menu of selections for group delay aperture (the change in frequency over which the change in phase is measured). .
DELAY aperature information (shown below the graticule) changes when different percent-of-span: selections are made. The DELAY information will appear only when the trace whose display function is DELAY is selected. See figure 2-23.
2-37
Making Measurements
.5%
REF LEVEL 0.000dB 40.000uSEC
OF SPAN
OTV
MARKER 10194 000.000HZ 10,000dB MAG LOF) - 3.143dB 20.000HSEC MARKER 10 194 000.000Hz
DELAY{UDF) 100.5 THSEC
OF SPAN
ARALELIU.LLLLLLLLLLS
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OF SPAN
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4% OF SPAN
8% OF SPAN
OF SPAN
CENTER to $87 S00,000HZ SPAN 100 000.000Hz AMPTD 0.0dBm
DELAY APER 2.000KHz
RETURN
Figure 2-23. Bandpass Magnitude and Group Delay
AO
Delay Group Delay tg = 360 x Af - Aperture
2-38
Making Measurements
mm
MAMM
Note
The DISCRETE SWEEP and LIMIT features can be used together to quickly measure critical frequencies, compare those frequencies to a limit and set the PASS/FAIL indicator. This feature combination can be useful for reducing test and data transfer time to a computer. However, each feature is totally independent of the other.
The discrete sweep table developed in this example now becomes part of the instrument state and is preserved when INSTR PRESET ) is pressed. For more detail on DISCRETE SWEEP see the SWEEP TYPE section of the REFERENCE Chapter.
2-53
Making Measurements Amplifier
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Amplifier
Gain Compression
Connect the amplifier to the HP 3577B Network Analyzer as shown in figure 2-33. The receiver inputs will begin to overload when the input signal level is > 0.0 dBm receiver attenuation = 20 dB; overload occurs at input signal levels > 20 dBm with receiver attenuation = 0dB). The amplifier used in this example has a gain of approximately 30 dB so 30 dB of attenuation was added to the circuit between the amplifier and the receiver input.
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Figure 2-33.
2-54
Making Measurements
Limit Test
This section will demonstrate how to test the bandpass filter to upper and lower limits. These limits are drawn on the display by entering values in a limit table where each row represents a line segment. In this example, an upper and a lower limit line will be drawn above and below the 3 dB passband of the filter using the 3 dB marker values recorded earlier in this example. Creating a Limit Table
1. Before defining the limit table,
trace two will be turned off and trace one will be made active. Press [ TRACE 2] [ DISPLY FNCTN)
( OFF ]
( TRACE 1 ) 2. To create the limit table, press
[ MKR)
(LIMIT TABLE]
.
LIMIT also appears above the | MKR key on the front panel. Notice the limittable on screen. Since trace one is active, the table heading indicates "TRACE 1 LIMIT TABLE".
3. Start the limit table from scratch
by pressing
( LIMIT CONFIG] (CLEAR TABLE] [ RETURN ]. The display should look like figure 2-24
Note that the LOWER softkey is bright, signifying that the row in the table indicated by the cursor will be a lower limit. The X-START frequency is also bright and is shown again above the table with the current value below it.
2-39
Making Measurements
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DELETE
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LIMIT CONFIG
USE UP/DOWN ARROW KEYS TO SELECT ROW. ADD NEW ROWS AT BOTTOM.
RETURN
Figure 2-24. Trace 1 Limit Table
For example, if the recorded marker frequency value on page 2-29 is 100 kHz, enter 100.5 kHz. Enter the value using the numeric keypad and the appropriate units softkey,
4. Change
[ X-START to the first 3 dB point frequency recorded on page 2-29 plus 500 Hz. For the bandpass used in this example, the x-start frequency is
10.18125 [ MHz)
UNITS assumes the currenty-axis scale of the trace specified for the limit. In this case the units are dB for TRACE 1.
5. Press
( Y-START] and enter the recorded marker amplitude on page 2-29. For the filter used in this example, press
- 4.534 (UNITS) to terminate the entry.
2-40
Making Measurements
6. Press
[X-STOP] and enter the second 3 dB point frequency recorded on page 2-31 minus 500 Hz. For the bandpass
filter used in this example, the X-stop is
10,194 [MHz].
If no frequency and amplitude values were recorded earlier, measure them at this time, Absolute values need to be used as entries in the limit table. To record the absolute frequency and amplitude of the marker, the marker offset needs to be turned off, Repeat steps 9 through 18 of the Bandwidth Measurements section and record the absolute marker frequency and amplitude.
LIO
7. Press
[ Y-STOP ] and enter the same marker amplitude as ( Y-START] (-4.534 units for this example).
This assumes the bandpass filter used has a flat 3 dB passband. If it does not, enter the marker amplitude of the second 3 dB point recorded on page 2-31.
.
The limit line will appear as a small line just under the 3 dB passband of the filter..
8. Check for where the limit was
drawn on the display by pressing
(LIMIT CONFIG] and toggle to
( LINES ON OFF 1. Press
( RETURN ] (twice) and look for the limit on the display as in figure 2-25.
.
.
.
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RÉF LEVEL
0.000dB
/DIV 10.000dB
MARKER 90 MAG I UDF)
92 500.000Hz
1.74906
MARKER POSN
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MARKER PDSN.
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Lower Limit Line --+
ZERO MARKER
MKR QFST ON OFF
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Figure 2-25. Lower Limit Line for 3 dB Passband
2-41
Making Measurements
If the limit line just created is not drawn within the passband of the filter, modify the X-START/STOP and Y-START/STOP frequencies as needed.
9. If no limit line is seen, it may
coincide with a graticule line making it hard to see. To check for this, turn off the graticule by pressing (SPCL FCTN) and toggle to
[GRAT ON OFF}. If a limit line still cannot be seen,
check that the lines have been turned on by pressing (MKR)
LIMIT TABLE] [ LIMIT CONFIG) and toggle to
( LINES ON OFF).
10. Now the upper limit will be
entered in the limit table. Press [ MKR)
[ LIMIT TABLE] Use the
[ ] key to move the table cursor to the next line down.
Note that the [ X-STOP | frequency from the row above is automatically entered as the [ X-START and [X-STOP] frequencies of the new row. These values are entered as a convenience for entering consecutive limit segment values for multi-segment limits. However, this example will simply demonstrate single-segment limit lines.
Note that [X-STOP ] already has the desired value entered since it was copied from the row above.
11. Press
[UPPER) to define an upper passband limit. This limit will be drawn 6 dB above the one just drawn. Press
[X-START] and enter the same value as the X-START frequency in the first row. Press
(Y-START] and enter either an amplitude 6 dB higher than the amplitude in the previous row or 0 dB, whichever is lower. Press
[ Y-STOP] and enter the same amplitude value.
2-42
Making Measurements
The table is now complete as shown in figure 2-26A
:.
:.
..::
.
12. Press
(RETURN ] and check for the new upper limit similar to the display shown in figure 2-26B. The graticule may have to be turned off again to view the new limit. To do this, press
SPCL FCTN) and toggle to
(GRAT ON OFF ]. Turn the graticule back on after viewing the new limit.
2-43
Making Measurements
X-START
Y - START
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ROW X-START
Table YESTART X-STOPY-STOP full
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10. 181M 24 10, 181M
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UPPER LOWER
DELETE ROW
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USE UP/DOWN ARROW KEYS TO SELECT ROW, ADD NEW ROWS AT BOTTOM.
RETURN
Figure 2-26A. Limit Table Complete
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REF LEVEL 2000dB
MARKER 10 192 500.000Hz MAGI UOF} - 1.79606
10.000
SCALE
REF
LEVEL
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Upper Limit Line at 0 dB--
REF POSN
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Figure 2-26B. Upper and Lower Limits Displayed
2-44
Making Measurements
Limit Test Evaluation
Note the brief message "COMPUTING LIMITS. on the display. Then a "PASS" message should appear in the upper left corner of the display as in figure 2-27
1. Now the filter will be tested to
the upper and lower limits just created. Press [ MKR]
( LIMIT TABLE] [ LIMIT CONFIG] and toggle to
(EVALUATE ON OFF ]. To start the test, press
(RETURN ) twice.
REF LEVEL
2.000de
DIV 10,000aB
MARKER 10192 S00.000Hz MAG I UDF) - 1.7970B
MARKER POSN
W
MARKER
Troce 1 MARKER POSN
ZERO MARKER
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the
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MKR OF $T ON OFF
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CENTER 10 187 500.000HZ AHP78 }ಳta
LIMIT TABLE
Figure 2-27. Bandpass Filter Passes Limit Test
2-45
Making Measurements
::.:::
::
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..
.
: . 11
1
If the message says "FAIL 1" from the start, it . means the limit lines have simply been drawn too. close to the 3 dB passband of the particular filter being used for the example.
2. If the filter passed the limits,
cause it to artificially fail by pressing (INPUT
[A]. As the sweep completes, the analyzer should beep and display the "FAIL 1" message meaning TRACE 1 has failed as shown in figure 2-28. To cause it to pass again, press [ INPUT ]
[USER DEF INPUT).
The Limit Table developed in this example now becomes part of the instrument state and is preserved when [ INSTR PRESET ) is pressed. Do not press ( INSTR PRESET ) if continuing to the next example. See the LIMIT section in the Reference Chapter for more information on limit testing.
REF LEVEL 2.000dBm
MARKER 10 19 500,000Hz MAG(A)
-24.908dBm
10.00008
FAL
Trace 1 LINPUT
1.
A
A/
wwwwwwwwwww
BIR
DATA REG
US
INPUT
www
CENTER 10 187 500.000HZ ANPTD 0.0dBm
SPAN 100 000.000HZ
COPY Tre 2+1
wwwwwwwww
Figure 2-28. Trace 1 Fails Limit Test
(Artificially Induced)
2-46
Making Measurements
Discrete Sweep Measurement
The bandpass filter will be measured at several discrete points defined by the Discrete Sweep table. There are several ways to build a Discrete Sweep table and some of them will be illustrated in this example. Creating a Discrete Sweep Table
...12
1. Press
[ SWEEP TYPE )
Note the current sweep type is linear frequency sweep:
2. Press
( DISCRETE SWEEP) and the [ DISCRETE TABLE ] key appears below it. If the table is clear of entries, the HP 3577B display should look like figure 2-29.
If the display looks different, the table probably has entries in it. To clear it, press
DISCRETE TABLET [ CLEAR TABLET | CLEAR TABLE ] (again). Check the display again by pressing [SWEEP TYPE]
and now the display should look like figure 2-30. * The table defaults to two entries both at 0 Hz
REF LEVEL 2.000.B
/DIV 10.000dB
MARKER 0.000Hz MAG (UDF} 9.24 10B
LIN FRED
SWEEP
ALTERNTE
SHE驻
WWW
LOG REO
SWEEP
AMPTD SWEEP
WWWWW
CW
UM
A
AALALU
DISCRETE
SWEEPV
SHWWWWWWW
DISCRETE
TABLE
HDIDLAUSHALT
wwwwww
Wwwwwwwww
STOP 0.000HZ
START 0.000HZ AMPTD 0.0dBm
SWP DIR UP DOWN
Figure 2-29. Display Resulting from a Clear
Discrete Sweep Table
2-47
Making Measurements
DISGRETE
FREQ.
FREQ STEP
::DISCRETE MREQ
.00 OHZ.17
STEP & INSERT
Discrete Sweep Toole ROW FREQUENCY SH R ES B
SETIUING
INSERT
ROW
1
0.00015 0.000 TL
KHz 40 00456 1 kHz
0.004 SEC1
Juin
www
DELETE ROW
CLEAR TABLE
LIN SWP DISCRETE
WALL
FREQ: "RES BW' SWEEP TIME' SELECT COLUMN UP/DOWN ARROW KEYS SELECT ROW.
RETURN
Figure 2-30. A Clear Discrete Sweep Table
3. The Discrete Sweep table can be
edited in several ways. To get a quick, coarse view of the trace, the ( LIN SWP - DISCRETE) feature can be used. It fills the table with equally spaced frequency points between the linear sweep start and stop frequencies. Press
[ DISCRETE TABLE ).
2-48
Making Measurements
4. Press
(LIN SWP - DISCRETE ) and note the submenu that allows selection of the total number of frequencies or rows desired in the table. Press
( 11 POINTS) and observe the additional i frequencies in the table as in figure 2-31A
The RES BW and SETTLING columns are automatically selected as 100 Hz and .037 seconds, respectively. Narrower [ RES BW ) and shorter I DISCRETE SETTLING ) times can also be entered manually. See the DISCRETE SWEEP section of the REFERENCE chapter for more information.
.
.
2
.
1
..
:
......
1
..
DISCRETE
FREO
FRED STEP
DISCRETE FREON": 1:06:137 500 000Hz
HILLAR
Y STEPS XINSERT
Discrete Sweep Table
ROW FREQUENCY (Hz) RES BW
SETTLING
INSERT
ROW
TUL
0
1
....
..
..
DELETE
ROW
104 137 500 ODONW100 Hz 10° 147 500.000 100 Hz 10 157 500.000 100 m 10 167 900.000 100 Hz 10 177 500.000 100 Hz 10 187 500.000 160 HZ 10 197 500.000 100 HZ 10 207 500.000 100 Hz 10 217 500.000 100 HZ 10 227 500.000 100 Hz
0.1037 SEC 0,037SEC 0,037SEC 0.0375EC 0,037 SEC 0.037 SEC 0.037 SEC 0.037 SEC 0.037SEC 0.037SEC
CLEAR TABLE
LIN SWP DISCRETE
10
HIRD
A
Www
*FREO. *RES BW *SWEEP TIME' SELECT COLUMN UP/DOWN ARROW KEYS SELECT ROW,
RETURN
Figure 2-31A. Discrete Sweep Table with Entries
Generated Using LIN SWP - Discrete
2-49
Making Measurements
Frequencies can also be entered manually by using
.
..
.
5. Press
( RETURN ] and observe the discrete sweep display as shown in figure 2-31B.
[ DISCRETE FREQ) and entering the desired frequency with the numeric keypad.
REF LEVEL 2.000de
DIV 10,000B
MARKER 10 137 500.000Hz MAG (UDF) -82, 3730B
IN FREO
SWEEP
PASS
ALTERNTE
SWEAP
LOG FREO
SWEEP
AMPTD SWEEP
CW
FACRASH
DISCRETEX 9:SWEEP
wwwwwwwihat
DISCRETE
TABLE
DO
Y
STOP 10 237 S00. OOOHZ
START 10 137 500.000Hz AMPTD 0.0dBm
SWP DIR UP DOWN
W
w
wwwwwwwwwwwwwww
HhWWWWWWWWWWWWW
Figure 2-31B. Discrete Sweep Display
2-50
Making Measurements
....
.
.......
.....
..
6. The next example will show
another way to add frequencies that are equally spaced using ( STEP & INSERT ). This key is closely tied with the (FREQ STEP softkey which sets the spacing between new frequencies to be added with ( STEP & INSERT ).
....
....:
7. Press
[ DISCRETE TABLE] [ FREQ STEP) and enter
As the cursor is moved to the bottom, the table will: scroll. Choose a (FREQ STEP ] value that will show a noticeable frequency addition on screen.
2
[kHz ] using the numeric key pad. Press the [] key and note the movement of the cursor in the table. Move the cursor to any row.
"
.
8. Press
[ STEP & INSERT ] and note the additional frequency in the table. Press
[RETURN ) and check for the additional point on the display as shown in figure 2-32A and 2-32B.
Note that the limit lines defined in the previous section are still displayed and the PASS indicator is still valid. The limits are compared to each discrete sweep point only. The straight lines drawn between each point may cross a limit line but the test will not fail unless one of the discrete sweep points is outside the limits.
:::
2-51
Making Measurements
DISCRETE
ARE
FREQ STEP
DISCRETE FREO ::.
0179: 500.000Hz
STEP
.
INSERT
.
:.:
.:
.:..:.:
W
wwwwwwwwww
muy
01:5sreie Sweep Table
.
.
.
ROWS FREQUENCY
w
(M) SPÉS BW
SETTLING .
INSERT
ROW
WWWWWWW
m
Wwwwwww
DELETE
ROW
viu AWN
10 137 500,000 100 HZ 0.037SEC 10 147 500.000 100 HZ 0.037SEC 10 157 500.000 100 HZ 0.037SEC 10 167 500.000 100 HZ 0.037SEC 10 777 900.000 100 Hz 0.037SEC 30.979 soo 0000 000 Hz0037SECO 10918 500 1000 100 Hz 16037 SEČ" 10 197 500.000 100 Hz 0,037SEC 10 207 500.000
0.037SEC 10 2 17 500.000 100 Hz 0,037 SEC
CLEAR TABLE
LIN SWP DISCRETE
* FREO' *RES BW" "SWEEP TIME' SELECT COLUMN UP/DOWN ARROW KEYS SELECT ROW.
RETURN
Figure 2-32A. Step & insert Used to Add
Frequency at Cursor
REF LEVEL
2.000de
MARKERNTO 179.500X00GHZX LIN FREQ HAGT UDF
9,669 dB
SWEEP
10.000dB
ALTERNTE
SWEEP
WW4
44444444444
LOG FREQ
SWEEP
AMPTD SWEEP
Www
L
IHAMA
DISCRETEK * SWEEP
DISCRETE
TABLE
STOP 10 297 500.000Hz
START 10 137 500,000Hz AMPTD D.OOB
$WP DIR UP DOWN
Figure 2-32B. Corresponding Frequency Added
on the Display
2-52
Making Measurements
Amplifier
Note the alphanumeric information under the graticule
1. The amplifier will be swept with a ramping source amplitude from
- 40 dBm to 0.0 dBm at 100 MHz. Press [INSTR PRESET ( SWEEP TYPE]
[ AMPTD SWEEP ).
www
.
Note
This feature will time out (change to [ SINGLE) in the ( SWEEP MODE ) menu) after five minutes of continuous sweeping to extend the life of the switching relays in the output of the HP 3577B. Single sweeps may be triggered with the ( TRIG/RESET ) hardkey or ( CONT ) sweep may be selected for another five minutes.
.
.
.
.
.:
2. The plot shown in figure 2-34 is
output level versus input level. To display gain compression (input versus gain), the trace must be normalized.
Note that gain compression causes the trace to level out. Normalization stores a measurement taken with a BNC barrel in place of the amplifier and then redefines the [INPUT ] to be the old input definition divided by the stored trace. The trace is then displayed as gain versus input.
Input = R
REF LEVEL -5.000dBtt
/DIV 5.000dB
MARKER. 15.0dBm MAGIR
- 13.224 dBm
LIN FREO
SWEEP
ALTERNTE
SWEEP
LOG FREO
SWEEP
AMETER SWEEP
CW
DISCRETE
SWEEP
WWHWLNILWww
LHAM
thwwwwwwwwwwww
STOP 15,08m
START - 10.008m #REQ 100 000 000.000Hz
SWP DIR UP DOWN
Figure 2-34. Amplitude Sweep of an Amplifier
2-55
Making Measurements Amplifier
.
.
.
..
.
.
3. To normalize, press
(MEASR CAL] in the DISPLAY FORMAT section. Replace the amplifier with a BNC barrel, and wait for a full sweep
..
T
..
....
4. Press
( NORMLIZE] and replace the BNC barrel with the amplifier.
5. Press
[ SCALE ]
( AUTO SCALE ).
The gain is constant where the trace is level and is in compression where the trace rolls off. Now the marker will be used to measure the 3 dB compression point.
Note that the marker target value is – 3 dB.
6. Press
(MKR →]
(MKR- MAX] to move the marker to the point on the trace with the largest gain value. Now an offset marker will be used to find the 3 db compression point. Press TMKR
| ZERO MARKER] (MKR → ]
[ MORE ]. 7. Press
(MKR - R TARG).
The marker information block now contains the span over which the amplifier has a gain compression of < 3 dB. See figure 2-35..
2-56


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