BUFFALO TERASTATION 3010 (02) PDF MANUAL


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PDF Content Summary: Network Attached Storage TeraStation 3010, 3020 User Manual Please make sure to read this manual before using and follow the procedures. If you have any inquiries about the product, contact the number on the warranty statement or the packing box. Do not discard the included documents, the warranty statement, or the packing box. Americas: buffaloamericas.com Europe: buffalo-technology.com Asia Pacific: buffalo-asia.com 35021138-24 June 2020 Notice Notice Regulatory Compliance Information For Customers in the United States This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation. Note: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the user will be required to correct the interference at his own expense. For Customers in Europe Warning: This is a class A product. In a domestic environment this product may be cause radio interference in which case the user may be required to take adequate measures. This product may cause interference if used in residential areas. Such use must be avoided unless the user takes special measures to reduce electromagnetic emissions to prevent interference to the reception of radio and television broadcasts. Environmental Information • The equipment that you have purchased has required the extraction and use of natural resources for its production. • The equipment may contain hazardous substances that could impact health and the environment. • In order to prevent the dissemination of those substances into the environment, and to relieve pressure on natural resources, we encourage you to seek out an appropriate take-back program. Take-back programs will reuse or recycle materials of any end-of-life equipment in a responsible way. • Products with the crossed-out wheeled-bin symbol above should not be recycled. Instead, seek out a take-back program as mentioned. • If you need more information on the collection, reuse, and recycling of our end-of-life products, please contact your local or regional waste administration. 1 Notice For Customers in Taiwan BSMI 警告使用者 : 此為甲類資訊技術設備,於居住環境中使用時,可能會造成射頻擾動,在此種情況下,使用者會被要求採取某 些適當的對策。 Warning Symbols and Graphical Icons on the Product Warning symbols are used on the product for safety operation and prevention of injury to you and damage to the unit. The following explains the meanings of symbols used on the product. This symbol indicates important warnings or cautions for operation and maintenance. Additional information will follow this symbol. This symbol indicates the presence of an alternating current. This symbol indicates that the rack-mounted equipment should not be used for a shelf or a work space. This symbol indicates danger of hazardous high voltage. Safety Precautions Before using your device, basic safety instructions should always be followed. (1) Read these instructions. (2) Keep these instructions. (3) Heed all warnings and follow all instructions. (4) The socket-outlet shall be installed near the equipment and shall be easily accessible. (5) Only use the cables and accessories that are included in the package. Don’t use other accessories or cables unless specifically instructed to in the documentation. Also, do not use USB cables that are 3 meters or longer to connect USB devices. (6) The device can only be used in a fixed location, such as a telecommunication center or a dedicated computer room. When you install the device, ensure that the protective earthing connection of the socket-outlet is verified by a technician. Translation to Norwegian: Utstyr som er koplet til beskyttelsesjord via nettplugg og/eller via annet jordtilkoplet utstyr – og er tilkoplet et kabel-TV nett, kan forårsake brannfare. For å unngå dette skal det ved tilkopling av utstyret til kabel-TV nettet installeres en galvanisk isolator mellom utstyret og kabel- TV nettet. Translation to Swedish: Utrustning som är kopplad till skyddsjord via jordat vägguttag och/eller via annan utrustning och samtidigt är kopplad till kabel-TV nät kan i vissa fall medföra risk för brand. För att undvika detta skall vid anslutning av utrustningen till kabel-TV nät galvanisk isolator finnas mellan utrusningen och kabel-TV nätet. 2 Table Of Contents Notice ..............................................................................1 Regulatory Compliance Information..............................................1 Warning Symbols and Graphical Icons on the Product.................2 Safety Precautions ...........................................................................2 Chapter 1 Getting Started .......................................... 11 Diagrams........................................................................................ 11 TS3010 Series TeraStations .....................................................................11 TS3020 Series TeraStations .....................................................................14 Turning the TeraStation On and Off............................................. 16 Re-Inserting Drives ....................................................................... 19 Creating a USB Initialization Drive .............................................. 19 Chapter 2 Configuration ............................................. 20 Configuring Settings via Setup Wizard ....................................... 20 Opening Setup Wizard ............................................................................20 Opening Settings .......................................................................... 21 Checking the Device Information from Dashboard ................... 23 Chapter 3 File Sharing................................................. 24 Configuring Shared Folders ......................................................... 24 Adding a Shared Folder...........................................................................24 Recycle Bin................................................................................................26 Read-Only Shares.....................................................................................26 3 Hidden Shares ..........................................................................................27 Configuring Users ......................................................................... 27 Adding a User...........................................................................................27 Importing User Information....................................................................30 Adding a Group............................................................................. 30 Configuring Access Restrictions for Shared Folders .................. 33 Local Users and Groups ...........................................................................33 Active Directory .......................................................................................35 Configuring Access Restrictions for Subfolders ......................... 38 Enabling Subfolders’ Access Restrictions ..............................................38 Restoring Owner and Permission Settings ............................................40 If a Shared Folder Cannot Be Accessed........................................ 42 Chapter 4 Storage Management................................ 44 RAID Modes ................................................................................... 44 Working with RAID Arrays............................................................ 45 Using JBOD...............................................................................................45 Changing RAID Mode ..............................................................................46 Shutting Down the TeraStation Automatically If an Error Occurs........47 Configuring Actions for If a Drive Used for the RAID Array Has Not Been Detected ...................................................................................................49 Configuring a Hot Spare..........................................................................52 Expanding RAID Capacity Without Deleting Data ................................53 RAID Scanning..........................................................................................57 Configuring Low Drive Space Alerts............................................ 58 Adding an External Drive ............................................................. 59 Connecting an External Drive.................................................................59 Compatibility ...........................................................................................59 4 Dismounting Drives ...................................................................... 60 Dismounting Using the Function Button...............................................60 Dismounting from Settings ....................................................................60 Checking Drives ............................................................................ 61 S.M.A.R.T. ....................................................................................... 62 Displaying S.M.A.R.T. Information .........................................................63 Checking the Drive Condition.................................................................64 Formatting Drives ......................................................................... 64 Encrypting Drives.......................................................................... 65 Erasing Data on the TeraStation Completely.............................. 66 Quotas............................................................................................ 67 Quotas for Users.......................................................................................67 Quotas for Groups ...................................................................................67 Size Limits.................................................................................................68 Using the TeraStation as an iSCSI Device .................................... 71 Introduction .............................................................................................71 Creating an iSCSI Volume........................................................................72 Connecting or Disconnecting Volumes..................................................74 Using with Multiple Computers..............................................................75 Configuring Access Restrictions .............................................................75 Expanding Volume Sizes .........................................................................78 Deleting Volumes.....................................................................................79 Advanced Settings...................................................................................80 Chapter 5 Backup ........................................................ 82 Backing Up Data on the TeraStation............................................ 82 Backup Modes..........................................................................................82 Preparing a Backup Destination.............................................................84 5 Configuring a Backup Job.......................................................................86 If Backing Up from rsync-Compatible Devices to the TeraStation.......89 Restoring Backup Data............................................................................90 Backup Logs for If Backup Fails ..............................................................91 Replication..................................................................................... 93 Preparing a Replication Destination......................................................94 Configuring a Replication Job ................................................................96 Synchronizing Between Source and Destination TeraStations Periodically...............................................................................................98 Failover .......................................................................................... 99 Before Configuring Failover..................................................................100 Usage Restrictions .................................................................................100 Configuring Failover..............................................................................101 Switching to the Backup TeraStation Manually...................................103 Reconfiguring After Failover Occurs ....................................................104 Synchronizing Between Main and Backup TeraStations Periodically105 Backing Up Your Mac with Time Machine ................................. 107 Chapter 6 Cloud Services and Remote Access......... 113 Synchronizing with Amazon S3 ................................................. 113 Preparing for Amazon S3 ......................................................................113 Uploading Files to Amazon S3..............................................................115 Synchronizing with Dropbox ..................................................... 119 Configuring a New Job ..........................................................................120 Changing Job Settings ..........................................................................122 Creating a Shared Link (Windows Only)...............................................126 Using Microsoft Azure for Data Preservation........................... 126 Creating a New Backup Job...................................................................126 Creating a New Restore Job ..................................................................131 6 Changing Job Settings ..........................................................................135 Synchronizing with Microsoft OneDrive................................... 137 Configuring a New Job ..........................................................................137 Changing Job Settings ..........................................................................144 Corrective Actions for in Case of Error .................................................148 WebAccess ................................................................................... 149 FTP................................................................................................ 152 Chapter 7 Advanced Features .................................. 154 Antivirus Software ...................................................................... 154 Activating Virus Scanning.....................................................................154 Configuring Security Settings ..............................................................155 Licenses ..................................................................................................157 Connecting Through a Proxy Server ....................................................158 Updating Antivirus Pattern Files ..........................................................159 Configuring Folders as Virus Scanning Targets ...................................160 Configuring Virus Scanning ..................................................................161 Checking the Log ...................................................................................162 Opening the Online Help ......................................................................163 Email Notification ....................................................................... 163 Sleep Mode.................................................................................. 165 Wake-on-LAN .............................................................................. 167 UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply)......................................... 168 Port Trunking............................................................................... 169 Offline Files for Windows............................................................ 171 Accessing from an NFS Client..................................................... 172 Encrypting Data Transmission ................................................... 177 7 Encrypting Settings Data ......................................................................177 Encrypting FTP Transfer Data ...............................................................177 SSL Keys ..................................................................................................177 SNMP............................................................................................ 178 Saving and Applying Settings.................................................... 179 Saving Settings ......................................................................................180 Applying Settings ..................................................................................181 Transferring Another TeraStation’s Settings............................. 182 Creating a Config File (.nas_config)......................................................182 Transferring Settings.............................................................................182 Restoring Factory Defaults......................................................... 183 Initializing from Settings ......................................................................183 Initializing Using the USB Initialization Drive .....................................184 Resetting the Administrator Password ..................................... 185 Logs .............................................................................................. 185 Displaying TeraStation’s Logs ...............................................................185 Transferring Logs to the Syslog Server................................................186 Creating a Shortcut to the Logs in the Shared Folder.........................188 Changing Archive Rules for File Access Logs .......................................189 Updating the Firmware............................................................... 191 Updating Manually................................................................................191 Updating Automatically........................................................................192 Configuring Update Notification............................................... 193 Name, Date, Time, and Language .............................................. 195 Beep Alerts .................................................................................. 197 LEDs.............................................................................................. 198 Proxy Server ................................................................................ 198 8 Jumbo Frames ............................................................................. 199 Changing the IP Address ............................................................ 201 Mapping IP Address and Hostname .......................................... 203 Boot Authentication ................................................................... 205 Notes Before Use....................................................................................205 Important Notice ...................................................................................205 Setting Up the Authentication Server on a Windows PC....................206 Configuring Boot Authentication on the TeraStation.........................206 If the TeraStation Cannot Be Accessed.................................................208 Chapter 8 Drive Replacement................................... 211 LEDs.............................................................................................. 211 Drive Replacement Procedure ................................................... 212 Using a Redundant RAID Mode or JBOD and TeraStation Is On.........212 Using a Redundant RAID Mode or JBOD and TeraStation Is Off ........215 Using RAID 0...........................................................................................215 Using a Hot Spare...................................................................................216 Replacing a Non-Malfunctioning Drive..................................... 216 Chapter 9 Utilities...................................................... 218 NAS Navigator2........................................................................... 218 Windows .................................................................................................218 macOS.....................................................................................................218 NovaBACKUP............................................................................... 218 Chapter 10 Appendix ................................................ 219 TeraStation Does Not Work Properly......................................... 219 9 Power LED Keeps Blinking ....................................................................219 Booting the TeraStation in Emergency Mode......................................220 Cleaning the Dustproof Filter .................................................... 221 Info and Error LEDs ..................................................................... 223 Errors.......................................................................................................223 Status ......................................................................................................224 Default Settings .......................................................................... 226 Specifications .............................................................................. 227 10 Chapter 1 Getting Started Chapter 1 Getting Started Diagrams Depending on the number or type of drives in the unit, the model name will be different. Check the sticker on the packing box for your unit’s model name. TS3010 Series TeraStations TS3210DN

8 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 7 11 11 10 12 13 14 19 15 16

Chapter 1 Getting Started TS3410DN 8 TS3410RN 1 2 3 4 5 6 15 11 7 12 13 14 16 9 19 10

10 17 10 18 3456 2 10 1 7 10 9 12 19 11 18 12 13 14 16 15 11 1 Power Button ( ) To power on the TeraStation, connect the power cable and wait for 10 seconds, then press the power button. To power off the TeraStation, press and hold down the power button for three seconds. If the TeraStation beeps, pressing and holding this button for a short period will stop the beeping. 2 Power LED On the TS3210DN and TS3410DN TeraStation models, the LED glows green when the TeraStation is on. On the TS3410RN TeraStation model, the LED glows white when the TeraStation is on. 3 Info LED If there is a status message, the info LED will light up amber. Check the Settings interface or NAS Navigator2 to see the status message. 12 Chapter 1 Getting Started 4 Error LED If there is an error, the error LED will light up red. Check the Settings interface or NAS Navigator2 to see the error message. 5 LAN1 LED When LAN port 1 is connected, this LED glows green and blinks when the connection is experiencing activity. 6 LAN2 LED When LAN port 2 is connected, this LED glows green and blinks when the connection is experiencing activity. 7 Function Button Use this button for dismounting USB devices, rebuilding RAID arrays, configuring failover, stopping the TeraStation’s beeping, and initializing settings using a USB drive. 8 Drive Lock ( ) Open the front panel with the key to replace drives or access the init button. 9 Init Button Press and hold down this button to initialize the TeraStation’s admin username and password, IP settings, SSL, and service port restriction settings to their factory default values. The effects of this button can be changed in Settings. 10 Status LEDs Normally, these LEDs blink green when drives are accessed. If a drive fails, its LED will turn red. 11 Fan Spins to prevent overheating inside. Do not block the fan. 12 USB Port ( ) Compatible Buffalo USB drives, USB memory devices, and USB UPS device connections can be connected. USB hubs are not compatible. 13 LAN Port 1 (1GbE, ) Connect an Ethernet cable to use this port for your network. It is available for communicating at max. 1000 Mbps. 14 LAN Port 2 (1GbE, ) Connect an Ethernet cable to use this port for your network. It is available for communicating at max. 1000 Mbps. 15 Power Connector Use the included power cable to connect to a UPS, surge protector, or outlet. 16 Anti-Theft Security Slot ( ) Use this slot to secure your TeraStation with a cable lock (not included). 17 Serial Number This sticker shows the TeraStation’s serial number. 18 UID Button Press this button to cycle the blue LED on and off. 13

Chapter 1 Getting Started 19 Link LED Glows green when the TeraStation is connected to a network. TS3020 Series TeraStations TS3220DN 1 2 3 4 5 6 11 7 8 9 15 16 12 13 14

TS3420DN 8 1 2 3 4 5 69 7 10 19 11 12 13 14 10 20 21 20 21 15 16 19

14 Chapter 1 Getting Started TS3420RN 10 17 10 18 3456 2 10 1 7 10 9 12 20 21 19 11 18 12 13 14 16 15 11 1 Power Button To power on the TeraStation, connect the power cable and wait for 10 seconds, then press the power button. To power off the TeraStation, press and hold down the power button for three seconds. If the TeraStation beeps, pressing and holding this button for a short period will stop the beeping. 2 Power LED On the TS3220DN and TS3420DN TeraStation models, the LED glows green when the TeraStation is on. On the TS3420RN TeraStation model, the LED glows white when the TeraStation is on. 3 Info LED If there is a status message, the info LED will light up amber. Check the Settings interface or NAS Navigator2 to see the status message. 4 Error LED If there is an error, the error LED will light up red. Check the Settings interface or NAS Navigator2 to see the error message. 5 LAN1 LED When LAN port 1 is connected, this LED glows green and blinks when the connection is experiencing activity. 6 LAN2 LED When LAN port 2 is connected, this LED glows green and blinks when the connection is experiencing activity. 7 Function Button Use this button for dismounting USB devices, rebuilding RAID arrays, configuring failover, stopping the TeraStation’s beeping, and initializing settings using a USB drive. 8 Drive Lock Open the front panel with the key to replace drives or access the init button. 9 Init Button Press and hold down this button with something pointed to initialize the TeraStation’s admin username and password, IP settings, SSL, and service port restriction settings to their factory default values. The effects of this button can be changed in Settings. 15 Chapter 1 Getting Started 10 Status LEDs Normally, these LEDs blink green when drives are accessed. If a drive fails, its LED will turn red. 11 Fan Spins to prevent overheating inside. Do not block the fan. 12 USB Port Compatible Buffalo USB drives, USB memory devices, and USB UPS device connections can be connected. USB hubs are not compatible. 13 LAN Port 1 (1GbE) Connect an Ethernet cable to use this port for your network. It is available for communicating at max. 1000 Mbps. 14 LAN Port 2 (2.5GbE) Connect an Ethernet cable to use this port for your network. It is available for communicating at max. 2.5 Gbps if using the included Ethernet or category 6A cable. Note: To communicate at up to 2.5 Gbps, all network devices must be compatible with 2.5GbE. 15 Power Connector Use the included power cable to connect to a UPS, surge protector, or outlet. 16 Anti-Theft Security Slot Use this slot to secure your TeraStation with a cable lock (not included). 17 Serial Number This sticker shows the TeraStation’s serial number. 18 UID Button Press this button to cycle the blue LED on and off. 19 Link/Act LED Glows green when the TeraStation is connected to a network and blinks when the connection is experiencing activity. 20 Link/Act LED Glows amber when the TeraStation is connected to a network at 100 Mbps or 2.5 Gbps and blinks when the connection is experiencing activity. 21 Link/Act LED Glows green when the TeraStation is connected to a network at 1000 Mbps and blinks when the connection is experiencing activity. Turning the TeraStation On and Off Note: Do not disconnect or reconnect the internal drives while turning on or off the TeraStation. Press the power button on the TeraStation to turn it on. To turn off the TeraStation, press and hold down the power button for three seconds. Don’t unplug the power cable without powering the TeraStation off first. You can also shut down or restart the TeraStation remotely from Settings using the procedure below. 1 Double-click the NAS Navigator2 icon ( ) to start NAS Navigator2. 16 Chapter 1 Getting Started 2 Right-click your TeraStation’s icon and select Open Settings. For macOS, select the TeraStation’s icon while holding down the control key, then select Open Settings. 3 Enter the username and password, then click OK. Note: The default username and password are “admin” and “password”. 17 Chapter 1 Getting Started 4 Settings will open. 5 Click at the top-right of Settings and choose Shut Down. 6 Click Yes. 7 The “Confirm Operation” screen will open. Enter the confirmation number, then click OK. When the power LED turns off, the shutdown process is completed. 18 Chapter 1 Getting Started Re-Inserting Drives If the E14 or E16 error appears on the Dashboard in Settings and NAS Navigator2 after initial bootup, follow the procedure below to re-insert the internal drives. 1 Turn off the TeraStation. 2 Open the front cover with the included key. 3 Push a drive’s unlock button and swing the lock mechanism out. 4 Pull out the drive cartridge and remove it from the TeraStation. 5 Insert the drive back into the same slot with the lock mechanism remaining open. Push here to insert. 6 Swing the lock back down until it clicks into place. 7 Repeat steps 3–6 for all other installed drives. 8 Once every drive has been re-inserted, close the front cover. 9 Press the power button on the TeraStation. 10 Make sure any error messages have cleared from the LCD panel. The drives are now inserted properly. Creating a USB Initialization Drive We recommend creating a USB initialization drive as soon as possible. This USB drive can be used to initialize the TeraStation’s settings to its factory default values or recover the system if your TeraStation encounters an error that prevents the unit from booting. For the detailed procedure, refer to the “Creating a USB Initialization Drive” subsection in chapter 7. 19 Chapter 2 Configuration Chapter 2 Configuration Configure and manage your TeraStation using the Settings interface, accessible from a browser window. Open the interface using the appropriate procedure below or type the TeraStation’s IP address into the URL field of your browser. Note: Microsoft Edge, Firefox, Google Chrome, Internet Explorer 9 or later, and Safari 9 or later are supported. If you have difficulty viewing Settings, check the following: • If there are a large number of registered users, groups, or shared folders, use another browser instead of Internet Explorer. • If you have a proxy server enabled in the browser settings, configure the exception settings for Settings or disable the proxy server. • With Internet Explorer, set security to Local intranet. On Windows Server operating systems, higher-level security is configured by default. Set the security to a lower level temporarily. Configuring Settings via Setup Wizard When you access Settings for the first time, or after initializing the TeraStation’s settings, the setup wizard will automatically appear to help you configure several TeraStation settings, such as RAID mode and proxy server settings. An example screen of the setup wizard is displayed below. Step through the wizard to configure any desired settings. If there is any setting you would like to configure later, click Skip to move to the next setup wizard screen, or click Cancel to exit the wizard. Example of Setup Wizard Screen Opening Setup Wizard You may run the setup wizard even after the initial setup or initialization. To launch the setup wizard again, follow the procedure below. 20 Chapter 2 Configuration 1 From Settings, click Management. 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “Restore/Erase”. 3 Click Execute Wizard. 4 The “Confirm Operation” screen will open. Enter the confirmation number, then click OK. 5 Follow the procedure on the screen and finish the setup wizard. Opening Settings 1 Double-click the NAS Navigator2 icon ( ) to start NAS Navigator2. 2 Right-click your TeraStation’s icon and select Open Settings. For macOS, select the TeraStation’s icon while holding down the control key, then select Open Settings. 21 Chapter 2 Configuration 3 Enter the username and password, then click OK. Notes: • If the time-out period is set to “10 minutes”, you will be logged out of Settings after 10 minutes of inactivity. • Click Secure Connection to log in using an encrypted connection. 4 Settings will open. Notes: • Username/Password Combinations: 22 Chapter 2 Configuration Username Password Settings Available admin (default) password (default) All guest blank System information (read-only) If a user is assigned as an administrator, all settings are

Your username Your password available. If assigned to another group, only system information (read-only) is available.

• Click at the top-right of Settings and choose I'm here to have the TeraStation beep so it can be located easily. Checking the Device Information from Dashboard When opening the Settings interface, the Dashboard page will appear first. Dashboard will show the following device information: • Notices, such as information events and errors • System information, such as hostname, firmware version, IP address, etc. • Drive information, such as used space of internal drives, LVM volumes, iSCSI volumes, etc. • CPU and system memory usage • Network information, such as IP address, link speed, sent and received rates, etc. Notes: • If the number of files on the TeraStation increases, it will also increase the memory usage of the TeraStation. This memory usage will decrease after a certain period of time passes. To reduce the memory usage immediately, try the following operations: ◦Restarting the TeraStation. ◦Dismounting the USB drive. • If there is not enough free space on the TeraStation, it may cause abnormal system behavior. Make sure that there is always at least 1 GB or more of free space on the TeraStation. 23

Chapter 3 File Sharing Chapter 3 File Sharing Configuring Shared Folders Adding a Shared Folder 1 From Settings, click File Sharing. 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “Folder Setup”. 3 Click Create Folder. 24

Chapter 3 File Sharing 4 Configure the desired settings, then click OK. Notes: • Names may contain up to 27 alphanumeric characters, hyphens (-), and underscores (_). Multibyte characters are supported. The first character should not be a symbol. • When you click the Option 1 tab, you can enter the folder description. Descriptions may contain up to 75 alphanumeric characters, hyphens (-), underscores (_), and spaces. Multibyte characters are supported. The first character should not be a space. • You may create up to 400 shared folders. • If the names of shared folders accessed via AFP and FTP connections contain multibyte characters, configure the client language in Management > Name/Time/Language to match the characters. If the setting and display language do not match, the shared folder name will not be displayed correctly. • The following characters are handled differently by macOS and Windows devices. Avoid using these characters when sharing data between macOS and Windows devices: ― ~ ∥ - ¢ £ ¬ • Windows does not support some characters that macOS and the TeraStation allow. If you create a filename on a macOS device using any of the following symbols, it will not display correctly on a Windows computer. You may 25 Chapter 3 File Sharing have to connect to the TeraStation via AFP in order to display or copy files that contain these symbols in their filenames. ? ] [ / \ = + > < ; : " , | * • Do not use any of the following words for the name of a shared folder as these words are reserved for internal use by the TeraStation: authtest, global, homes, info, lost+found, lp, msdfs_root, mt-daapd, printers, ram, spool, usbdisk x (where “x” is a number, for example: usbdisk1) • Don’t use the following unsupported characters in shared folder names, workgroup names, or filenames: ①②③④⑤⑥⑦⑧⑨⑩⑪⑫⑬⑭⑮⑯⑰⑱⑲⑳ⅠⅡⅢⅣⅤⅥⅦⅧⅨⅩ ⅰⅱⅲⅳⅴⅵⅶⅷⅸⅹ㎜㎝㎞㎎㎏㏄㎡№㏍℡㊤㊥㊦㊧㊨㈱㈲㈹㍾㍽㍼㍻㍉㌔㌢㍍㌘㌧㌃㌶㍑㍗㌍㌦㌣㌫㍊ ㌻¦'"〝〟∮Σ∟⊿ 纊褜鍈銈蓜俉炻昱棈鋹曻彅丨仡仼伀伃伹佖侒侊侚侔俍偀倢俿倞偆偰偂傔僴僘兊兤冝冾凬刕劜劦勀勛匀匇匤 卲厓厲叝﨎咜咊咩哿喆坙坥垬埈埇﨏塚增墲夋奓奛奝奣妤妺孖寀甯寘寬尞岦岺峵崧嵓﨑嵂嵭嶸嶹巐弡弴彧德 忞恝悅悊惞惕愠惲愑愷愰憘戓抦揵摠撝擎敎昀昕昻昉昮昞昤晥晗晙晴晳暙暠暲暿曺朎朗杦枻桒柀栁桄棏﨓楨 﨔榘槢樰橫橆橳橾櫢櫤毖氿汜沆汯泚洄涇浯涖涬淏淸淲淼渹湜渧渼溿澈澵濵瀅瀇瀨炅炫焏焄煜煆煇凞燁燾犱 犾猤猪獷玽珉珖珣珒琇珵琦琪琩琮瑢璉璟甁畯皂皜皞皛皦益睆劯砡硎硤硺礰礼神祥禔福禛竑竧靖竫箞精絈絜 綷綠緖繒罇羡羽茁荢荿菇菶葈蒴蕓蕙蕫﨟薰蘒﨡蠇裵訒訷詹誧誾諟諸諶譓譿賰賴贒赶﨣軏﨤逸遧郞都鄕鄧釚 釗釞釭釮釤釥鈆鈐鈊鈺鉀鈼鉎鉙鉑鈹鉧銧鉷鉸鋧鋗鋙鋐﨧鋕鋠鋓錥錡鋻﨨錞鋿錝錂鍰鍗鎤鏆鏞鏸鐱鑅鑈閒隆 﨩隝隯霳霻靃靍靏靑靕顗顥飯飼餧館馞驎髙髜魵魲鮏鮱鮻鰀鵰鵫鶴鸙黑畩秕緇臂蘊訃躱鐓饐鷯 • File and folder names may contain up to 255 single-byte characters. • Folder and workgroup names whose names contain non-Roman characters may not be displayed correctly. • If shared folders are accessed from a macOS device, information files for the macOS device may be generated automatically. Do not delete these files. If they are deleted from a Windows device, this may prevent further access from a macOS device. • The TeraStation belongs to the default zone in AppleShare; the zone cannot be specified. • When files are copied to the TeraStation or to a USB drive connected to the TeraStation, file information such as date created, date modified, and other date information may be updated or changed. • During a file transfer, if settings are changed, the file transfer operation may be aborted. • File copying to the TeraStation is protected by a journaling file system. If the Ethernet cable is disconnected or a power outage occurs while copying data, the following may occur: ◦Preset data such as the TeraStation name, users, and groups may be erased. ◦An incomplete file may be copied and the file can no longer be deleted. If this occurs, restart the TeraStation, delete the file, and perform the copy operation again. • If the Ethernet cable is disconnected from the LAN port during file copying, even if the cable is not in use, the copy operation will abort. Do not disconnect or reconnect the Ethernet cable to the LAN port during file copying. Recycle Bin To protect your data from accidental deletion, you may configure your TeraStation to use a recycle bin instead of deleting files immediately. The recycle bin will only work with SMB connections. To empty the recycle bin, click File Sharing > Folder Setup > Empty Recycle Bin in Settings. The recycle bins in all shared folders will be deleted. Notes: • You can prevent guests and other users from emptying the trash by navigating to File Sharing > SMB > Edit and select “Administrator only” for the “Permissions” option. • If you use macOS, select “Keep when original file is deleted” for the “macOS Temp Files” option by navigating to File Sharing > SMB > Edit. If this setting is changed, files in the recycle bin may be corrupted. Read-Only Shares By default, new shares are set with read and write access, but you may change the folder attribute to read-only. Follow the procedure below to change the shared folder attribute to read-only. 1 From Settings, navigate to File Sharing > Folder Setup and choose a shared folder. 26

Chapter 3 File Sharing 2 Click the Option 2 tab and change the “Attribute” option to “Read only”, then click OK. Read-only shares and HFS Plus-formatted USB drives will have “(Read Only)” added to comments in File Explorer. Notes: • Configure the share attribute only through Settings. Configuring folder attributes through Windows is not supported and may cause unexpected behavior. • To set a read-only share or USB drive to another attribute, follow the procedure above and change the attribute in step 2 from “Read only” to the appropriate attribute. Hidden Shares If a shared folder becomes hidden, it will not be displayed under Network, and only certain users will be allowed to access it. To hide a shared SMB folder, follow the procedure below. 1 From Settings, navigate to File Sharing > Folder Setup and choose a shared folder to make hidden. 2 Click the Option 2 tab and select the “Hidden share (SMB only)” checkbox, then click OK. Notes: • If protocols other than “SMB (Windows/Mac)” or “Backup” under “LAN Protocol Support” on the Basic tab are enabled, the hidden shares option will be grayed out and cannot be selected. • Configure hidden share attributes only through Settings. Configuring them through Windows is not supported and may cause unexpected behavior. To access a hidden folder, open File Explorer in your computer and enter “\\TeraStation name\shared folder name$\” into the address bar. For example, if the TeraStation name is “TSXXX001” and the shared folder name is “share”, enter “\\TSXXX001\share$\” to open it. Configuring Users Adding a User Note: The TeraStation can register a maximum 300 of users, which include the default users “admin” and “guest”. 1 From Settings, click File Sharing. 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “Users”. 27 Chapter 3 File Sharing 3 Click Create User. 28

Chapter 3 File Sharing 4 Enter the desired settings, then click OK. Notes: • Usernames may contain up to 128 alphanumeric characters, hyphens (-), underscores (_), periods (.), and the symbols ! # & @ $ * ^ %. The first character should not be a symbol. • The user ID should be a number from 1000 to 1999. Each user ID should be unique. If this field is left blank, a user ID is assigned automatically. • Do not duplicate user IDs, group IDs, usernames, or group names. Each should be distinct and unique. • User descriptions may contain up to 75 alphanumeric characters, hyphens (-), underscores (_), and spaces. Multibyte characters are supported. The first character should not be a symbol or space. • Passwords may contain up to 20 alphanumeric characters, hyphens (-), underscores (_), spaces, commas (,), periods (.), semicolons (;), tildes (~), and the symbols @ ! $ & * + : = ? ] [ ^ } { \. The first character should not be a symbol unless it is an underscore. • Use the same username and password for both Windows and the TeraStation or you may be unable to access shared folders. • Do not use a name already in use as a group; do not use any of the following words as a username as these words are reserved for internal use by the TeraStation: _lldpd, adm, admin, administrator, admins, all, apache, avahi, avahi-autoipd, backup, bin, crontab, daemon, dialout, dip, disk, ftp, ftpuser, fuse, gnats, guest, guests, halt, hdusers, irc, kmem, libuuid, list, lp, mail, man, messagebus, mysql, netdev, news, nobody, nogroup, none, ntp, openldap, operator, plugdev, proftpd, proxy, puppet, root, rpc, rpcuser, sambashare, sasl, shadow, shutdown, snmp, splx, src, ssh, sshd, staff, statd, sudo, sync, syslog, tmhttpd, tty, users, utmp, uucp, winbindd_priv, www, www-data 29

Chapter 3 File Sharing Importing User Information You can import users in File Sharing > Users by clicking Import CSV File. An example format for user data: Username (required), password (required), and user description (optional). Example 1: Importing usernames, passwords, and comments username1,password1,comment1 username2,password2,comment2 username3,password3,comment3 Example 2: Importing usernames and passwords username1,password1, username2,password2, username3,password3, Guidelines: • Use commas (,) as separators. Do not put spaces before or after commas. If you don’t want user descriptions, use a comma after the password at the end. • If a line is in an incorrect format, the username entered on that line will not be registered. • If an unavailable name is used by a user or if the username already exists, an error will occur and cancel the import process. User whose usernames were entered during or after the error occurs will not be imported. • Do not use commas (,) in the username, password, or user description. Note: Imported users are added to the “hdusers” group automatically. Adding a Group 1 From Settings, click File Sharing. 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “Groups”. 30 Chapter 3 File Sharing 3 Click Add Group. 31

Chapter 3 File Sharing 4 Enter the desired settings, then click OK. Notes: • Group names may contain up to 20 alphanumeric characters, hyphens (-), underscores (_), and periods (.). The first character should not be a symbol. • Group descriptions may contain up to 75 alphanumeric characters, hyphens (-), underscores (_), and spaces. Multibyte characters are supported. The first character should not be a symbol or space. • If the group ID field is left blank, a group ID is automatically assigned. Use numbers between 1000 and 1999 to set a group ID manually. Don’t use duplicate group IDs. • You may register up to 300 groups with the TeraStation. • If you are logged in as an administrator, you can change any setting, including other users’ passwords. If you are logged in as a member of the power users group, you can create and edit shared folders, users, and groups. If you are logged in as a member of the general users group, you can change only your own password. • Do not use a name in use as a user; do not use any of the following words as a group name as these words are reserved for internal use by the TeraStation: _lldpd, adm, admin, administrator, admins, all, apache, avahi, avahi autoipd, backup, bin, crontab, daemon, dialout, dip, disk, ftp, ftpuser, fuse, gnats, guest, guests, halt, hdusers, irc, kmem, libuuid, list, lp, mail, man, messagebus, mysql, netdev, news, nobody, nogroup, none, ntp, openldap, operator, plugdev, proftpd, proxy, puppet, root, rpc, rpcuser, sambashare, sasl, shadow, shutdown, snmp, splx, src, ssh, sshd, staff, statd, sudo, sync, syslog, tmhttpd, tty, users, utmp, uucp, winbindd_priv, www, www-data 32 Chapter 3 File Sharing Configuring Access Restrictions for Shared Folders You may restrict access for specific shared folders, including external USB drives. Notes: • Configure access restrictions only through Settings. Configuring access restrictions through Windows is not supported and may cause unexpected behavior. • Shared folders with limited access can still be used as backup destinations. • If you grant both read-only and read and write access to the users or groups, the attributes will become as below:

Group with read-only access Group with no access User with read and write Group with read and write access

accessR/W R R/W User with read-only access R R R User with no access R/W R - R/W: Read and write, R: Read-only, -: No access • If you change access restrictions for a user or group while they are accessing files, unexpected behavior may occur. Local Users and Groups 1 From Settings, click File Sharing. 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “Folder Setup”. 33

Chapter 3 File Sharing 3 Click the shared folder that you want to set access restrictions for. 4 Click the Access Restrictions tab. 5 Enable “Access Restrictions for Shared Folders”. 6 Select the level of access for the user or group. : Read and write : Read-only : No access 7 Click OK. 34

Chapter 3 File Sharing Notes: • The example above shows access restrictions by users. To restrict access by group, click the Local Groups tab and select group permissions. • For an access-restricted shared folder, if you change the access restrictions of all users and groups from read and write or read-only to access prohibited from the user or group list page in Settings, that shared folder can only be accessed by admin users and groups. Active Directory If there is an Active Directory environment, the TeraStation will use account information from the Active Directory domain controller to set access restrictions for TeraStation’s shared folders. There is no need to perform individual account management for the TeraStation. If multiple TeraStations are installed on the network, the account information is centrally managed in Active Directory, greatly reducing the operations required for installation and management. Notes: • If usernames or group names from Active Directory include multibyte characters, you will not be able to configure access restrictions for them. • The TeraStation supports a domain environment with a maximum of 10,000 users and groups. 1 From Settings, click Network. 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “Workgroup/Domain”. 3 Click Edit. 4 Select “Active Directory”, then click Next. 35 Chapter 3 File Sharing 5 Enter the domain controller information and click Search. The domain controller on the same network will be detected and required settings will be entered into each field automatically. Alternatively, you can also manually enter the settings. 6 If there is a difference of more than five minutes between the TeraStation’s clock and the domain controller’s clock, joining the domain or authenticating domain users and groups may fail. For best results, select “Configure domain controller as an NTP server” if the domain controller can function as the NTP server. 7 Click OK. 8 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “Folder Setup”. 36

Chapter 3 File Sharing 9 Click the shared folder that you want to set access restrictions for. 10 Click the Access Restrictions tab. 11 Enable “Access Restrictions for Shared Folders”. 12 Select the level of access for the user or group. : Read and write : Read-only : No access 13 Click OK. Notes: • To have the TeraStation join an Active Directory domain, configure it to use a DNS server that can resolve names for the Active Directory domain. • After building an Active Directory domain, the administrator password for joining the domain must be changed at least once, or joining the Active Directory domain will fail. • The DNS name and NetBIOS name of Active Directory domains should be identical. • If the TeraStation is a member server of an Active Directory domain, you cannot connect as a guest user via AFP. • If your TeraStation is a member server in an Active Directory domain and you change the authentication method to “Workgroup”, the account on the domain controller will not be deleted automatically. • If FTP is enabled, local and domain group access restrictions from the AD network do not work. Use user access restrictions instead. • For an access-restricted shared folder, if you change the access restrictions of all users and groups from read and write or read-only to access prohibited from the user or group list page in Settings, that shared folder can only be accessed by admin users and groups. • If you allow read and write or read-only access for most users, group access restrictions are recommended. 37

Chapter 3 File Sharing • Depending on the domain controller’s policy settings, the domain controller may force the TeraStation to leave the Active Directory domain. If this occurs, the TeraStation will lose the domain users and groups so if you have configured access restrictions using domain accounts, these users will no longer be able to access shared folders. In such a case, change the policy settings on the domain controller or let the TeraStation join the Active Directory domain again. Configuring Access Restrictions for Subfolders You may restrict access to subfolders in shared folders by configuring access permissions from your computer using Windows File Explorer. Notes: • Depending on the environment, the function may not work properly when enabled. We recommend verifying the functionality before using. • Access permissions configuring from File Explorer is available for up to 18 files and 24 folders. This number of available access permissions may vary if access permissions are inherited from the parent object. The number of available access permissions are not many so using group access permissions is recommended if the permission level is the same to the multiple users; it will save spending the number of available access permissions. Enabling Subfolders’ Access Restrictions 1 From Settings, click File Sharing. 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “Folder Setup”. 38

Chapter 3 File Sharing 3 Click the shared folder that you want to set access restrictions for. 4 Clear all checkboxes for “LAN Protocol Support” other than “SMB (Windows/Mac)”, “Backup”, and “NFS”. 5 Click the Option 2 tab. 6 Enable “Access Restrictions for Subfolders”. Note: If “Hide Non-Access Permitted Files and Folders” is enabled, non-access permitted sub-files and folders will not be displayed in shared folders. 7 Click OK. Enabling subfolders’ access restrictions finished. Next, configure access permissions for each user or group to files and folders in subfolders from File Explorer. 39 Chapter 3 File Sharing You may also configure access permissions for domain users and groups. You should have the TeraStation join your Active Directory domain before configuring access permissions from File Explorer. Notes: • If enabling subfolders’ access restrictions for a USB drive, the drive should be formatted using XFS or ext3. • The UID and GID of domain accounts should be updated before using the subfolders’ access restrictions if the TeraStation joined the AD network while running a firmware version earlier than 3.00 and has since updated to version 3.00 or later. To update the UID and GID, navigate to File Sharing > SMB > Edit in Settings and click Update. • To back up or replicate files to backup or replication destinations with access permission settings of files and folders in subfolders unchanged, make sure that the same workgroup name, user IDs, and group IDs are configured between backup or replication sources and destinations. • If you clear the “Read & execute” checkbox under “Allow” (as shown on the image above) and disable the subfolders’ access restrictions, these users and groups will have read and write permission. • If the TeraStation’s settings have been initialized but you configure the same UID and GID for new users and groups, access permissions to files and folders in subfolders may be inherited. Restoring Owner and Permission Settings If you changed the owner to an unexpected user or accidentally lost permissions to a specific folder, restore them by following the procedure below. 1 From Settings, click File Sharing. 40

Chapter 3 File Sharing 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “Folder Setup”. 3 Click Advanced Settings for Subfolders. 41

Chapter 3 File Sharing 4 Select a folder to restore permissions from the tree. Note: If you select a root shared folder from the tree, the action will not be run to the recycle bin. To run the action, select the recycle bin instead. 5 Select the actions and action range to run, then click OK. 6 The “Confirm Operation” screen will open. Enter the confirmation number, then click OK. If a Shared Folder Cannot Be Accessed Due to the security reasons, you may be unable to access shared folders from computers running certain Windows versions. In such a case, try either of the following corrective actions: • Adding a Windows credential • Configuring the TeraStation to allow you to enter a Windows credential when a shared folder cannot be accessed Follow the procedure below to change the TeraStation settings so you can enter a Windows credential. 1 From Settings, click File Sharing. 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “SMB”. 42 Chapter 3 File Sharing 3 Click Edit. 4 Under “Users”, change the “Action When Authentication Fails” to “Show network credentials window”. 5 Click OK. The settings will be changed. The window to enter a username and password will be displayed next time you access a shared folder but fails. 43 Chapter 4 Storage Management Chapter 4 Storage Management RAID Modes The TeraStation supports many types of RAID. The type of RAID arrays available for use depends on how many drives are installed on your TeraStation. Notes: • If you change the RAID mode, all data on the array is deleted. This is true for every procedure in this chapter. Always back up any important data before performing actions that affect your RAID array. • Some RAID arrays allow you to change the RAID mode without losing data by adding drives. To change a RAID mode by adding drives to the existing array, refer to the “Expanding RAID Capacity Without Deleting Data” section below. • Drive capacity is displayed in Settings in actual gigabytes. The Properties window in Windows may show GiB instead, which will be a smaller number. • If the TeraStation is restarted or shut down while changing the RAID mode, the message that appears on the Dashboard in Settings and NAS Navigator2 will change from I46 or I47 to I18. • RAID 5, 6, and 10 are only available for TeraStation models that allow three or more drives to be inserted. Please check Settings on your model before changing the RAID mode. RAID 6 RAID 6 arrays are available for TeraStations with four drives. RAID 6 combines four or more drives into a single array. The usable space is equal to the sum of the capacity of all drives minus the capacity of two drives. For example, if four drives are combined into a RAID 6 array, the usable space is the sum of the capacity of two drives. If two drives in the array become damaged, you can recover data by replacing them. If three or more drives become damaged, then all data in the array will be lost. RAID 5 RAID 5 arrays are available for TeraStations with three or more drives. RAID 5 combines three or more drives into a single array. The usable space is equal to the sum of the capacity of the drives minus the capacity of one drive. For example, if four drives are combined into a RAID 5 array, the usable space is the sum of three drives. If one drive in the array becomes damaged, you can recover data by replacing the damaged drive. If two or more drives become damaged at the same time, then all data in the array will be lost. RAID 10 RAID 10 arrays are available for TeraStations with four drives. In this mode, mirrored pairs of drives in RAID 1 arrays are combined into a RAID 0 array. The usable space is equal to the capacity of the smallest drive multiplied by the number of drives divided by two. 44

Chapter 4 Storage Management RAID 1 Combines two or more drives into a mirrored array. The usable space is equal to the capacity of a single drive. Identical data is written to each drive. If a drive becomes damaged, data can be recovered by replacing the damaged drive. As long as one drive in the array remains undamaged, all data in the array can be recovered. RAID 0 Combines two or more drives into a single array. The usable space is equal to the total capacity of all drives in the array. This simple RAID mode offers faster performance than RAID modes that include parity. If a single drive in the array becomes damaged, then all data in the array will be lost. JBOD This mode uses the drives inside the TeraStation as individual drives. The usable space is equal to the total capacity of all drives on the TeraStation. If any of the drives become damaged, then all data on that drive will be lost. Working with RAID Arrays To change RAID settings, navigate to Storage > RAID in Settings. Using JBOD With JBOD, each drive on the TeraStation is addressed separately. To put drives from an array into JBOD, follow the procedure below. 1 From Settings, click Storage. 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “RAID”. 45 Chapter 4 Storage Management 3 Click the array to delete. 4 Click Delete RAID Array. 5 The “Confirm Operation” screen will open. Enter the confirmation number, then click OK. 6 Click OK when completed. Next, create a shared folder by referring to the “Adding a Shared Folder” section in chapter 3. Changing RAID Mode To change the RAID mode, first put the drives into JBOD by referring to the “Using JBOD” section above. Then, follow the procedure below. 1 From Settings, click Storage. 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “RAID”. 46

Chapter 4 Storage Management 3 Choose a RAID array. 4 Select a RAID mode and the drives to be used, then click Create RAID Array. 5 The “Confirm Operation” screen will open. Enter the confirmation number, then click OK. 6 Click OK when completed. Next, create a shared folder by referring to the “Adding a Shared Folder” section in chapter 3. Shutting Down the TeraStation Automatically If an Error Occurs This function will shut down the TeraStation automatically if an error occurs on a drive that is used in a redundant RAID array. To configure auto shutdown, follow the procedure below. 47

Chapter 4 Storage Management 1 From Settings, click Storage. 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “RAID”. 3 Click Options. 4 Click Edit. 48 Chapter 4 Storage Management 5 Change the “Error Behavior” option to “Shut down” and click OK. Configuring Actions for If a Drive Used for the RAID Array Has Not Been Detected The TeraStation can configure actions for if a drive used for the RAID array cannot be mounted when booting. Displaying or Hiding the Confirmation Screen Configure to display or hide the confirmation screen for selecting actions for if a drive used for the RAID array cannot be mounted when booting. It is configured to display the confirmation screen by default. To hide the screen, follow the procedure below. 1 From Settings, click Storage. 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “RAID”. 49

Chapter 4 Storage Management 3 Click Options. 4 Click Edit. 5 Change the “Drive Detection Action Settings” option to “Don't prompt when a drive could not be detected” and click OK. When the confirmation screen is hidden, an undetected drive will automatically be dismounted from the TeraStation and the TeraStation will be in degraded mode if a redundant RAID mode is configured. If RAID 0 is configured, the 50 Chapter 4 Storage Management RAID array will be corrupted so that data will be lost. It is recommended to proceed without changing settings that make the confirmation screen appear. Selecting the Action on the Confirmation Screen When the confirmation screen is displayed, the following screen will appear after logging in to Settings if the drive used for the RAID array could not be mounted. Select the action to run when the screen appears. Conditions and Corrective Actions If Undetected Drives Aren’t Displayed Properly Even when you configure the NAS to show the confirmation screen if a drive being used for the RAID array cannot be mounted, undetected drives will not be displayed under the following conditions. If you are using any of the RAID array configurations below, follow the corrective action. Conditions Corrective Actions RAID 10 has been configured. 1 Refer to the “Selecting the Action on the Confirmation Screen” section above on how to access the confirmation screen. 2 Select “Shut down the TeraStation and reconnect the drives” and click Execute.

Multiple arrays have been configured. 3 After the TeraStation shuts down, confirm that all drives have been inserted properly. 4 Press the power button to power on the TeraStation. 5 Log in to Settings and make sure the confirmation screen doesn’t appear.

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Chapter 4 Storage Management Configuring a Hot Spare If you have a hot spare configured and an array fails, the TeraStation immediately switches over to the hot spare. To use a hot spare, you need a RAID 1 or RAID 5 array and an extra drive that’s not part of an array. Notes: • All data on the hot spare drive is deleted when it is configured as a hot spare and again when it changes from a spare to a drive in the array. • A hot spare cannot be configured for TeraStation models with only two drives included. 1 From Settings, click Storage. 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “RAID”. 3 Choose a RAID array. 52

Chapter 4 Storage Management 4 Click Set as a hot spare. 5 Click Yes. 6 The “Confirm Operation” screen will open. Enter the confirmation number, then click OK. 7 Click OK when completed. Note: To turn the hot spare back to a normal drive, choose Set as a normal drive. Expanding RAID Capacity Without Deleting Data You can create or expand a RAID array without erasing data on the drive by using RMM (RAID Mode Manager). If using a TeraStation model whose drives are not fully installed into the slots, such as the TS3410DN TeraStation model with two drives included, follow the procedure to add a new drive first. Otherwise, refer to the procedures in this section to configure the RAID array. The following examples use the case of the TS3410DN TeraStation model. Adding a Drive The procedure for adding a new drive will vary depending on your device. 1 Open the front cover with the included key. 2 Push the drive’s unlock button for the empty slot and swing the lock mechanism out. 3 Pull out the drive cartridge and remove it from the TeraStation. 4 Insert the new drive (sold separately) into the empty slot with the lock mechanism remaining open and swing the lock back down until it clicks into place. 5 Close the front cover. 6 When the drive is recognized, the status LED will flash red and the I32 message will appear on the Dashboard in Settings and NAS Navigator2. 53 Chapter 4 Storage Management 7 From Settings, click Storage. 8 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “Drives”. 9 Select the inserted new drive and click Format Drive. 10 Select a format type and click Format. 11 The “Confirm Operation” screen will open. Enter the confirmation number, then click OK. 12 Click OK when completed. Drives Are Currently in JBOD If the drives are currently in JBOD (not in a RAID array), you may change it to a RAID 1 array. To create the RAID 1 array using RMM, you must have at least two drives available in JBOD. 54 Chapter 4 Storage Management 1 From Settings, click Storage. 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “RAID”. 3 Choose a RAID array. 4 Set the RAID mode to “RAID 1”. 5 Select the “Add a drive to a RAID array with RMM. Your data will be preserved.” checkbox. 55

Chapter 4 Storage Management 6 Select the drive whose data will be saved from the drop-down list. 7 Select the drive to add to the RAID array. 8 Click Create RAID Array. 9 The “Confirm Operation” screen will open. Enter the confirmation number, then click OK. 10 Click OK when completed. Drives Are Currently in RAID 1 or RAID 5 If the drives are currently in a RAID 1 or RAID 5 array, you can use RMM to add drives to the RAID array, then change the RAID mode. Note: RMM can be used to expand an array by only one drive per operation. To expand by two or more drives, RMM must be activated multiple times. For example, if you want to create a RAID 6 array by adding two drives, change the RAID mode to RAID 5 first using one drive, then change it to RAID 6 using another drive. 1 From Settings, click Storage. 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “RAID”. 3 Choose a RAID array. 56

Chapter 4 Storage Management 4 Select one drive to add to the RAID array. If changing the RAID mode, choose the desired mode for the array from the drop-down list. Otherwise, keep the current RAID mode as is. 5 Click Change RAID Array. 6 The “Confirm Operation” screen will open. Enter the confirmation number, then click OK. 7 Click OK when completed. RAID Scanning A RAID scan checks your RAID array for bad sectors and if it finds any, it automatically repairs them. Arrays other than RAID 0 are supported. For best results, run a RAID scan regularly. 1 From Settings, click Storage. 2 Move the RAID scanning switch to the position to enable RAID scanning. 3 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “RAID Scanning”. 4 Click Edit. 57

Chapter 4 Storage Management 5 Select when to run the scan and click OK. Notes: • Select the “Immediately” checkbox to run a RAID scan immediately. • To stop a RAID scan, click Cancel RAID Scan. Configuring Low Drive Space Alerts You can configure the TeraStation to notify you when it is running low on free space, either by having a message displayed on the Dashboard in Settings or having the TeraStation send you an email notification. This function is applicable to internal drives, RAID arrays, and NAS volumes on the TeraStation. Note: If you have configured low drive space alerts and created iSCSI volumes on the LVM-enabled area, the I65 message will appear on the Dashboard in Settings and NAS Navigator2. 1 From Settings, click Storage. 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “Drives”. 58

Chapter 4 Storage Management 3 Click Free Space Alert. 4 Change the “Free Space Alert” option to “Enable” and enter the threshold value, then click OK. If the percentage of remaining free space on the TeraStation decreases past the threshold percentage, a notification will appear on the Dashboard in Settings. The free space alert will be enabled. To configure free space alert email notifications, refer to the “Email Notification” section in chapter 7. Adding an External Drive Connecting an External Drive Your TeraStation features USB ports (the number of available ports will depend on your model), and you can connect external drives to these ports. Once connected, they appear as shared folders on the TeraStation. Formatted drives are detected automatically. Unformatted drives should be formatted in Settings. After a USB drive is recognized, the TeraStation adds “usbdisk x” to the shared folder list, where “x” is the USB port to which the drive is connected. Compatibility Supported file systems for external USB drives are below: 59 Chapter 4 Storage Management File Systems Recommended Situation XFS Connecting to another Buffalo NAS device. Ext3 Connecting to another Buffalo NAS device that is a TS-X or older model. NTFS* Connecting to Windows computers. The NTFS-formatted drive can use many more functions of the operating system than an exFAT drive. HFS Plus*, ** Connecting to macOS computers. The HFS Plus-formatted drive can use many more functions of the operating system than an exFAT drive. exFAT* Connecting to both Windows and macOS computers. FAT32 Connecting to both Windows and macOS computers. *This cannot be formatted from Settings. **This is read-only from the TeraStation. Files on the USB drive can be copied to the TeraStation. Make sure only one device is connected to a USB port on the TeraStation. Note that only the first partition of a connected USB drive is mounted. Additional partitions are not recognized. Notes: • If your USB 3.0 drive is not reconfigured after rebooting the TeraStation, unplug and reconnect it. • When copying a file that is over 100 MB to a FAT32-formatted USB drive using File Explorer, an error message may appear. In such a case, use an FTP or SFTP connection to copy the file. • When copying files from a shared folder to a FAT32-formatted USB drive, the progress bar may not be displayed or the file copying may fail. Using a file system other than FAT32 is recommended for the USB drive. • After connecting an RDX drive to the TeraStation, click Redetect Drive anytime. Dismounting Drives If the TeraStation is powered on, dismount drives (internal and external) before unplugging them. You may dismount external drives using the function button, or dismount any drive from Settings. If the TeraStation is off, then all drives are already dismounted and may be unplugged safely. Notes: • Do not dismount internal drives while a RAID array is rebuilding or RMM is being configured. If you do, data on the drives may be lost. • To dismount an RDX cartridge from an RDX dock, first perform the dismount process either using the function button or from Settings, then press the eject button on the dock to disconnect the cartridge. Dismounting Using the Function Button When you press the function button, the TeraStation will beep once. Press and hold down the button until the TeraStation beeps again and the button starts blinking blue. It will take about six seconds. When the function button stops blinking and returns to glowing, the dismount is finished. You may now unplug any USB drives safely. After 60 seconds, the function button will go out and any drives that have not yet been unplugged will be remounted. Dismounting from Settings 1 From Settings, click Storage. 60 Chapter 4 Storage Management 2 Click Drives to dismount an internal drive or USB Drives to dismount an external drive. 3 Select the drive to dismount and click Dismount Drive. 4 The “Confirm Operation” screen will open. Enter the confirmation number, then click OK. 5 When the dismounting process is completed, it is safe to unplug the drive. Disconnect the drive from the TeraStation. Note: To remount the drive, unplug it and then plug it back in. Checking Drives A drive check tests the data on a drive on the TeraStation or one that is connected via USB for integrity. Errors are fixed automatically. With large drives, a drive check may run for many hours. Shared folders cannot be accessed during a drive check. Do not turn off the TeraStation until the drive check is finished. Use the procedure below to run a drive check. 1 From Settings, click Storage. 61 Chapter 4 Storage Management 2 Click Drives to check an internal drive or USB Drives to check an external drive. 3 Select the drive or array to test, then click Check Drive. 4 Click Check. You have the option of deleting information files from macOS during the check if desired. S.M.A.R.T. S.M.A.R.T. (Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology) monitors internal drives to detect and report various indicators of reliability, in the hope of anticipating failures. If S.M.A.R.T. informs you of impending drive failure, you may choose to replace the drive to avoid outages and possible data loss. Follow the procedure below to check S.M.A.R.T. information for the TeraStation’s internal drives. Note: S.M.A.R.T. information is only available for internal drives. 62

Chapter 4 Storage Management Displaying S.M.A.R.T. Information 1 From Settings, click Storage. 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “Drives”. 3 Select a drive to check and click S.M.A.R.T. 63 Chapter 4 Storage Management 4 The S.M.A.R.T. information for the drive will be displayed. Different information may be displayed depending on the brand of drives on your TeraStation. Critical attributes are displayed in bold. Checking the Drive Condition Attributes with the worst value that is equal to or less than the threshold value may be significant. If an attribute reports a failure, or has had one in the past, it will be displayed in the status column. In such a case, replacing that drive is recommended. Formatting Drives Note: Under some circumstances, data deleted when a drive is formatted can be recovered. To ensure that data is “gone forever”, a format might not be sufficient. Refer to the “Erasing Data on the TeraStation Completely” section below. 1 From Settings, click Storage. 2 Click Drives to format an internal drive or USB Drives to format an external drive. 64

Chapter 4 Storage Management 3 Select the drive or array to format, then click Format Drive. 4 Select a format type, then click Format. 5 The “Confirm Operation” screen will open. Enter the confirmation number, then click OK. 6 Depending on the size and the formatted file system of your drive, the format may take several minutes or several hours to complete. The I20 message for drives or the I28 message for USB drives will appear on the Dashboard in Settings and NAS Navigator2 until the format is completed. Click OK when completed. Notes: • Do not turn off or disconnect power to the TeraStation while formatting a drive. • For drives that are 2.2 TB or larger, make sure that the “GPT partition” checkbox is selected. Encrypting Drives Internal drives (and arrays) can be encrypted with 256-bit AES during formatting. Encrypted drives and arrays are then readable only from that specific TeraStation. To decrypt a drive or array, clear the “Encryption” checkbox and format it again. 65 Chapter 4 Storage Management Erasing Data on the TeraStation Completely Under some circumstances, data from formatted drives can be recovered. The drive erasure process in this section does a much more thorough job of erasing data. This procedure is recommended for removing all data from a drive in a way that makes it nearly impossible to recover with current tools. The TeraStation will then be in the following state: • All drives in JBOD • An empty shared folder on each drive • All settings returned to their default values • All logs deleted If you remove a drive and then erase all data on the TeraStation, the Dashboard in Settings and NAS Navigator2 will display the E22 error and the number of the removed drive. You can still use the TeraStation. Follow the procedure below to completely and permanently erase all data from your TeraStation. 1 From Settings, click Management. 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “Restore/Erase”. 3 Click Erase TeraStation. 4 The “Confirm Operation” screen will open. Enter the confirmation number, then click OK. 5 All data on the TeraStation will be permanently erased. 66 Chapter 4 Storage Management Quotas You can set a quota for each user or group as well as a threshold alert where you will receive an email notification if the space used exceeds the configured threshold. To configure email notifications for the quota, refer to the “Email Notification” section in chapter 7. Notes: • When using quotas, disable the recycle bin or empty the trash folder often. The limited space includes the space used for trash. • Quotas apply per drive or per array. If a quota is set to 1 GB, each array or drive can use a maximum of 1 GB. • Quotas cannot be set for external drives connected to the TeraStation. • If both user and group quotas are configured for a user, the most restrictive quota will always apply. • When joined to a domain, only local users and groups will be able to set quotas. Domain users and groups will be able to configure access restrictions for shares but cannot set quotas. Quotas for Users Follow this procedure to limit the shared folder space available for a user. 1 From Settings, click File Sharing. 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “Users”. 3 Select the user that will be given a quota and click Edit. If you want to set a quota for a new user, create a user by referring to the “Adding a User” section in chapter 3. 4 Enable quotas, choose the alert and the maximum amount of space the user will be allowed to use, and click OK. Note: If you change the primary group, restart the TeraStation to apply the quota settings. Quotas for Groups Follow the procedure below to limit the space for shared folders that each group can use. 67 Chapter 4 Storage Management 1 From Settings, click File Sharing. 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “Groups”. 3 Select the group that will be given a quota and click Edit. If you want to set a quota for a new group, create a group by referring to the “Adding a Group” section in chapter 3. 4 Enable quotas, choose the alert and the maximum amount of space the group will be allowed to use, and click OK. 5 Click Close. 6 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “Users”. 7 Select the user that will inherit the group quota settings and click Edit. If you want to add a new user to a group with a quota, create a user by referring to the “Adding a User” section in chapter 3. 8 Select the group’s checkbox to join and change the user’s primary group to the group with the quota, then click OK. 9 Click Close. 10 Click at the top-right of Settings and select Restart. Size Limits If LVM is enabled, volumes can be created with maximum size limits. Notes: • When creating an LVM volume, all data in the area where you specified for the LVM volume will be erased. Before changing any settings, back up any important data. 68 Chapter 4 Storage Management • Do not use any of the following words for the name of a volume as these words are reserved for internal use by the TeraStation: array x, authtest, disk x, global, homes, info, lost+found, lp, mediacartridge x, msdfs_root, mt daapd, printers, ram, spool, usbdisk x. Any instances of “x” denote a number (for example: array1 or disk3) 1 From Settings, click Storage. 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “LVM”. 3 Select the drive or array where the volume will be located and click Enable LVM. 4 The “Confirm Operation” screen will open. Enter the confirmation number, then click OK. 5 Click OK. 69

Chapter 4 Storage Management 6 Click Edit under “NAS Volume”. 7 Click Create Volume. 70

Chapter 4 Storage Management 8 Configure the desired settings, then click OK. 9 Click OK. 10 Click Close, then click Close again. 11 Navigate to File Sharing > Folder Setup. 12 Click Create Folder. 13 Configure the settings. 14 Select the volume that you created for “Drive/Array” on the Basic tab and click OK. Notes: • If you click Show under “Volume List”, the volumes will be listed on the screen and you can see if these volumes are being used as iSCSI or NAS. • If an LVM volume could not be mounted, try restarting the TeraStation. If an issue still exists, delete and recreate the LVM volume. Deleting the LVM volume will erase data on the volume. Using the TeraStation as an iSCSI Device Introduction iSCSI is a protocol for carrying SCSI commands over IP networks. Unlike traditional SAN protocols such as Fibre Channel, which requires special-purpose cabling, iSCSI can be run over long distances using existing network infrastructure. Normal Windows formatting such as NTFS is supported. Differences Between NAS and iSCSI With iSCSI, the TeraStation is connected to a single computer, such as a server. Other computers on the network access files on the TeraStation through the computer it’s connected to. The TeraStation can be used as a local drive from Windows Server. Features of Windows Server such as Active Directory can be used normally. As a NAS, the TeraStation is a server, and computers (including other servers) on the network can access shared folders on it directly. A separate server is not required, and features such as backup are built-in. 71 Chapter 4 Storage Management Network Configuration Use gigabit or faster network equipment with iSCSI. For best results, a dedicated network for iSCSI is recommended, separate from the regular network. By default, the IP address of the TeraStation is automatically assigned from a DHCP server. However, in this case, if you turn off and restart the TeraStation, the IP address may be changed and the volumes on the TeraStation may not be accessible. To avoid changing the IP address unexpectedly, using a static IP address for the TeraStation is recommended. Connection Tool The Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator is already installed on your computer. You don’t need to download and install it. Creating an iSCSI Volume To use the TeraStation as an iSCSI drive, create a volume first. Configure the TeraStation as described below. Notes: • If the volume settings are changed, all data on the volume will be erased. Before changing any settings, back up any important data. • The TeraStation can have up to 255 volumes, but we recommend creating no more than 32. Exceeding this volume amount may cause irreparable damage to the unit. • Do not use any of the following words for the name of a volume as these words are reserved for internal use by the TeraStation: array x, authtest, disk x, global, homes, info, lost+found, lp, mediacartridge x, msdfs_root, mt daapd, printers, ram, spool, usbdisk x. Any instances of “x” denote a number (for example: array1 or disk3) 1 From Settings, click Storage. 2 Move the iSCSI switch to the position to enable iSCSI. 3 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “iSCSI”. 72 Chapter 4 Storage Management 4 Click Create Volume. 5 Enter a volume name, volume description, drive or array where a volume will be created, and volume size. Click OK when completed. If you enabled LVM for the target drive or array, or selected “File I/O” for the “Backstore” option, the volume size that you specify here can be changed later. To change the volume size, refer to the “Expanding Volume Sizes” section below. 6 Click OK, then click OK again. 73 Chapter 4 Storage Management Notes: • If you click Disable Connection for the selected volume in Storage > iSCSI in Settings, the selected iSCSI volume can no longer be accessed. If you click Enable Connection, the volume will become accessible from the iSCSI initiator software. • If you selected “Block I/O” for the “Backstore” option, write cache (WCE) cannot be configured from the “Advanced Settings” page. Connecting or Disconnecting Volumes Connecting Volumes To connect a volume, follow the procedure below. Note: Do not shut down the TeraStation while connecting to an iSCSI volume. It may cause unexpected data erasure. Make sure all connections are disconnected before shutdown. 1 From Windows, navigate to Control Panel > System and Security > Administrative Tools > iSCSI Initiator. 2 Enter the IP address of the TeraStation into the “Target” field and click Quick Connect. 3 Confirm if the connection is established and click Done. Formatting Volumes If using the connected volume for the first time, the volume should be formatted to be used as a local drive. Follow the procedure below for formatting. 1 From Windows, navigate to Control Panel > System and Security > Administrative Tools > Computer Management. 2 Click Disk Management. When the “Initialize Disk” screen appears, click OK without changing any settings. 3 Right-click the drive volume that shows the status “Unallocated” and click New Simple Volume from the displayed menu. Follow the screen to finish formatting. 74 Chapter 4 Storage Management When the formatting process is completed, the drive will be visible as an icon in Computer or This PC and can be used as a normal drive on the computer. Disconnecting a Volume 1 From Windows, navigate to Control Panel > System and Security > Administrative Tools > iSCSI Initiator. The status of the connecting volume will be displayed as “Connected” under “Discovered targets”. 2 Select a volume to disconnect and click Disconnect. 3 Click Yes. 4 When the volume status is displayed as “Inactive”, the disconnection was carried out properly. Using with Multiple Computers If the TeraStation is divided into multiple volumes (or drives), it can be used with multiple computers. However, it is not recommended to access a single volume or drive from multiple computers at the same time for security reasons. When using the TeraStation as an iSCSI device, it should only connect to a single initiator unless the computer running the initiator also has clustering enabled and configured on its operating system. To avoid using multiple initiators for access, enable mutual authentication. Checking Whether iSCSI Volume Is Connected To check whether an iSCSI volume is connected, navigate to Storage > iSCSI. Current volumes will be listed. If “Connected” is displayed under “Status”, the volume is currently connected to the client. Configuring Access Restrictions A CHAP name and secret can be configured for the entire iSCSI volume or each existing volume. Access restrictions can be configured so that entering a target CHAP name and secret is required for each connection. The TeraStation can perform mutual authentication (two-way authentication). Dual passwords ensure that only authorized client computers can access the volume on the TeraStation. Follow the procedure below to enable access restrictions. Configuring Access Restrictions for the Entire TeraStation 1 From Settings, click Storage. 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “iSCSI”. 3 Click the Security tab. 75 Chapter 4 Storage Management 4 Click Edit under “Access Control (Target Discovery)”. 5 Enable authentication, enter the target CHAP name and secret, and click OK. Note: To enable mutual authentication in addition to target CHAP name and secret authentication, select the “Enable mutual authentication” checkbox and enter the initiator CHAP secret. To search or connect the volume which has mutual authentication enabled from Microsoft iSCSI Initiator, initiator CHAP secret settings should be configured. 6 Click OK when completed. Connecting Volumes on the Access-Restricted TeraStation If access restrictions are configured for the entire iSCSI volume, that volume will not be detected by Microsoft iSCSI Initiator. To connect that volume, the target CHAP name and secret should be authenticated. 1 Open the Microsoft iSCSI Initiator. 2 Register the initiator CHAP secret to your computer first. If you didn’t enable mutual authentication, skip this step. Click CHAP on the Configuration tab. Enter the configured initiator CHAP secret into the “Initiator CHAP secret” field and click OK. 3 From the Discovery tab, click Discover Portal. 4 Enter the TeraStation’s IP address into the “IP address or DNS name” field and click Advanced. 5 Select the “Enable CHAP log on” checkbox and enter the target CHAP name into the “Name” field and the target CHAP secret into the “Target secret” field. If mutual authentication is enabled, select the “Perform mutual authentication” checkbox. 6 Click OK, then click OK again. 76 Chapter 4 Storage Management 7 The iSCSI volumes on the TeraStation will be listed under “Discovered targets” on the Targets tab. Select the desired volume to connect and click Connect. 8 Click OK. 9 When the status of the selected volume is displayed as “Connected”, the connection is established properly. Configuring Access Restrictions for Individual Volumes If access restrictions are configured for a volume, that volume cannot be accessed unless the target CHAP name and secret are authenticated. 1 From Settings, click Storage. 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “iSCSI”. 3 Click the volume to enable access restrictions. 4 Enable authentication, enter the target CHAP name and secret, and click OK. Note: To enable mutual authentication, select the “Enable” checkbox to the right of “Mutual Authentication” and enter the initiator CHAP secret. 5 Click OK when completed. 77 Chapter 4 Storage Management Connecting to Individual Volumes That Are Access-Restricted 1 Open the Microsoft iSCSI Initiator. 2 Register the initiator CHAP secret to your computer first. If you didn’t enable mutual authentication, skip this step. Click CHAP on the Configuration tab. Enter the configured initiator CHAP secret into the “Initiator CHAP secret” field and click OK. 3 From the Discovery tab, click Discover Portal. 4 Enter the TeraStation’s IP address into the “IP address or DNS name” field and click OK. 5 The iSCSI volumes on the TeraStation will be listed under “Discovered targets” on the Targets tab. Select the desired volume to connect and click Connect. 6 Click Advanced. 7 Select the “Enable CHAP log on” checkbox and enter the target CHAP name into the “Name” field and the target CHAP secret into the “Target secret” field. If mutual authentication is enabled, select the “Perform mutual authentication” checkbox. 8 Click OK, then click OK again. 9 When the status of the selected volume is displayed as “Connected”, the connection is established properly. Expanding Volume Sizes The volume size of the existing volumes can be expanded after they are created. Notes: • Expanding the volume size may erase all data on the volume depending on the formatting type. Backing up the data before expanding the volume size is recommended. • To expand the volume size, the volume should have “File I/O” selected for the “Backstore” option, or the volume needs to have been created on a drive or array with LVM enabled. 1 From Settings, click Storage. 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “iSCSI”. 3 Select the volume to expand. 78

Chapter 4 Storage Management 4 Enter the desired volume size to add and click OK. 5 Click OK. Deleting Volumes To delete an existing volume, follow the procedure below. Note: Deleting a volume will erase all data on the volume. Back up the data before deleting the volume. 1 From Settings, click Storage. 2 Click the settings icon ( ) to the right of “iSCSI”. 79


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